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Questions tagged [co.combinatorics]

Enumerative combinatorics, graph theory, order theory, posets, matroids, designs and other discrete structures. It also includes algebraic, analytic and probabilistic combinatorics.

6
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0answers
177 views

How distributive are the fake Laver tables?

The Laver table $A_{n}$ is the unique algebra $(\{1,...,2^{n}\},*)$ such that $x*1=x+1$ for $1\leq x<2^{n}$, $2^{n}*1=1$, and $x*(y*z)=(x*y)*(x*z)$. Let's now replace the Laver table $A_{n}$ with ...
6
votes
1answer
265 views

Is there an efficient algorithm to check whether two matrices are the same up to row and column permutations?

Define $\mathcal M_n$ as the set of all $n\times n$ matrices with each entry either 1 or $x$. Two such matrices are equivalent iff they can be obtained from each other by swapping pairs of rows and ...
6
votes
1answer
317 views

Bichromatic pencils

A pencil is a collection of some lines through a point, called the center of the pencil. If the points of the plane are colored, then call a pencil bichromatic if there is a color that is present on ...
5
votes
0answers
296 views

0-1 matrix combinatorial problem

Let $M \in \{0,1\}^{n \times n}$ and let $r_i$ be its $i$-th row. Given constant $p \in (0,1/2]$, let the number of $1$s in each row be at least $p\,n$. Given constant $c \in (0,1)$, what is the ...
5
votes
1answer
262 views

hooks and contents: Part I

For a cell $\square$ in the Young diagram of a partition $\lambda$, let $h_{\square}$ and $c_{\square}$ denote the hook length and content of $\square$, respectively. R Stanley proved the following ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Estimate on sum of squares of multinomial coefficients

I am interested in approximating the sum of the squares of the multinomial coefficients, i.e. $a_\ell^p := \sum_{k_0+\ldots+k_p = \ell} (\frac{\ell!}{k_0! \ldots k_p!})^2$ or more general, $a_\...
4
votes
2answers
319 views

Anticoncentration of the convolution of two characteristic functions

Edit: This is a question related to my other post, stated in a much more concrete way I think. I am interested in anything (ideas, references) related to the following problem: Suppose that $A \...
4
votes
1answer
226 views

Graphs with constant edge imbalance

The imbalance of an edge $(u,v) \in E(G)$ of a graph $G$ is defined as $|d(u)-d(v)|$ ($d$ being, as usual the degree). (This concept was introduced by Albertson in 1997) I'm interested in the set of ...
4
votes
1answer
223 views

Generalizing Kasteleyn's formula even more?

Inspired and intrigued by this question, I decided just for fun to throw in another integer into the factors and look what happens. So for $k\in\mathbb Z$, let us define $$K_r(n,k):=\prod_{\ell_1=1}^...
2
votes
1answer
182 views

Proof and interpretation of the following percolation theory result for $n\times n$ square grid

While I was discussing this question with @JamesMartin, he mentioned a result here that: In a $n\times n$ finite square grid, if $p\geq p_c+\epsilon$, such that $\epsilon>0$ and $p_c$ is the ...
2
votes
1answer
194 views

How many lines of exactly n points can be placed in a discrete, square grid of size m x m?

Per the title, I'm seeking the definition of a function $f(n, m)$ which evaluates to the number of lines made from exactly $n$ points which can be placed on a two-dimensional discrete, square grid of ...
1
vote
1answer
428 views

relationship between corner tile and edge tile of wang tile

It is clear that any corner type of Wang Tile could be converted to edge type of Wang Tile by defining the edge color according to the corner color. However, could we convert edge type of Wang Tile ...
9
votes
1answer
210 views

How many positions of a tiling polygon can occur simultaneousy?

Let $T$ be a polygon which tiles the plane. For an instance of $T$ (mirrored or not), call the set of its translates a position of $T$. My question: How many different positions can occur in ...
8
votes
2answers
578 views

Densest Graphs with Unique Perfect Matching

Given a graph $G$ with $n$ vertices, that has a perfect matching $M$, what is the maximal number of edges that $G$ can have without contradicting the uniqueness of $M$? Are examples of such extremal ...
8
votes
1answer
262 views

“Almost Hankelized” numerical Vandermonde

One of the more utilized determinant is that of Vandermonde's $$\begin{vmatrix} 1&x_1&x_1^2&\dots&x_1^{n-1}\\ 1&x_2&x_2^2&\dots&x_2^{n-1}\\ \ldots&\ldots&\...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Sperner's lemma and Tucker's lemma

In their article "A Borsuk-Ulam Equivalent that Directly Implies Sperner's Lemma" (American Mathematical Monthly, April 2013), Nyman and Su write "[W]e are unaware of a direct proof that Tucker's ...
6
votes
1answer
464 views

Is every polynomial a factor of a trinomial?

We say that $T(X) \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ is a trinomial if there exist $A,B,C \in \mathbb{Q}$ such that $T(X) = AX^n + BX^m + C$ for some $n \geq m \in \mathbb{N}$. Is it true that for each irreducible ...
6
votes
2answers
222 views

Permanent of Nakayama algebras

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakayama_algebra for the definition of Nakayama algebras and define the permanent of such an algebra to be the permanent of its Cartan matrix. (all algebras are ...
4
votes
1answer
350 views

Rigid Strongly Regular Graphs

I need a few examples of graphs that are strongly regular as well as rigid, i.e., have only the trivial automorphism. Any references to relevant literature would be appreciated. Thanks.
4
votes
1answer
254 views

Reference for partial Hadamard matrices

Definition. An $m\times n$ matrix is said to be a partial Hadamard matrix (let's say PHM) if its entries are chosen from $\lbrace -1, 1 \rbrace$ such that the dot product of each pair of row vectors ...
4
votes
1answer
168 views

Strongly minimal covers

Let $H=(V,E)$ be a hypergraph, that is $V$ is a set and $E\subseteq \mathcal{P}(V)$. We say that $C\subseteq E$ is a cover of $H$ if $\bigcup C = V$. A cover $M\subseteq E$ is said to be strongly ...
3
votes
1answer
461 views

Automorphism groups of indefinite non-unimodular integer lattices

Does anyone know of any papers in which structural aspects of the orthogonal group of some indefinite non-unimodular integral lattice are calculated? The exact lattice isn't so important and they don'...
3
votes
0answers
150 views

Matrices with only two different entries and maximal determinant

Define $\mathcal M_n$ as the set of all $n\times n$ matrices of full rank with each entry either 1 or $x$. I am interested in how big the determinant of such a matrix can be. For this, we define in a ...
2
votes
2answers
205 views

Matching with probabilistic edges

Let $p<1$ be a constant. Consider two sets $A,B$, each with $n$ vertices. For each pair $(a,b)\in A\times B$, the edge between $a$ and $b$ appears with probability $p$, independently of the ...
2
votes
0answers
277 views

Counting / characterizing the isolated points of a particular algebraic variety

I'm not a professional geometer / topologist, so please thanks for your patience :) Setup The following questions are the first in a series of steps I'm undertaking in an attempt to break down a ...
2
votes
2answers
151 views

Existence of 3-distributed subsets

Denote $[n]=\{1,2,\dots,n\}$. Assume $n\geq2$. Question. Is it true that given any $S_1,S_2,\dots,S_{2n}$ (repetition allowed) subsets of $[2n]$ with $a\in S_a$ and $\# S_a=n$ for all $1\leq a\leq ...
2
votes
0answers
840 views

Necklaces and the generating function for inversions

The problem of Necklaces is well-known, i.e "The number of fixed necklaces of length $n$ composed of $a$ types of beads $N(n,a)$" can be calculated: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Necklace.html Let us ...
1
vote
0answers
137 views

Non-trivial lower bound on the number of “Graph Diagonals”

The definition of Graph Diagonals, that are the subject of this question, is based on the notions of crossing edges and on connected graphs: Two edges $AC$ and $BD$ of a complete, symmetric and ...
1
vote
0answers
410 views

Possibility of Disconnected Subgraphs of a $k$ Connected $r$ regular Graph under a given condition

Context: Given a adjacency matrix A of a $r$-regular graph $G$ (not complete graph $K_{r+1}$) . $G$ is $k$ connected. The matrix A can be divided into 4 sub-matrices based on adjacency of vertex $x ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

Covering a finite ring with arithmetic progressions

Let $n\geq 2$ be a positive integer and $k$ be a number between $1$ and $n$. Recently, I came across the following question about $\mathbb Z/n\mathbb Z$ and I wonder if it was studied before. I'd be ...
1
vote
1answer
208 views

Combinatorial 0-1 vector problem

Let $M \in \{0, 1\}^{n\times n}$. Given a constant integer $c \ge 2$, let the number of $1$s in each row be equal to $\frac{n}{c}$ (assuming $c$ is a divisor of $n$). Let $\mathcal{M}_c$ be the set of ...
1
vote
2answers
181 views

Is the Erdős–Rényi giant component result applicable here?

Consider a matrix whose elements are independently assigned a value $1$ with probability $p$ and a value $0$ with probability $1-p$. Define a cluster of cells as a maximal connected component in the ...
1
vote
1answer
173 views

Will this greedy algorithm always work?

Let p(n) be the number of unrestricted partitions of n. p(0) is taken to be 1. Let set 1 and set 2 be two empty sets. Here's an algorithm. Put p(n) into set 1. On each successive step, k=1,2,3,..., ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Does there exist any analogous result for site percolation?

This is a sequel to the question: Proof and interpretation of the following percolation theory result for $n\times n$ square grid In the paper: The Birth of the Infinite Cluster:Finite-Size Scaling ...
0
votes
1answer
104 views

Critical coverings of $\omega$

A covering of a non-empty set $X$ is a collection ${\cal U} \subseteq ({\cal P}(X)\setminus\{\emptyset\})$ such that $\bigcup {\cal U} = X$. If ${\cal U}$ is a covering of $X$ then a function $f:{\cal ...
79
votes
17answers
87k views

Google question: In a country in which people only want boys [closed]

Hi all! Google published recently questions that are asked to candidates on interviews. One of them caused very very hot debates in our company and we're unsure where the truth is. The question is: ...
62
votes
8answers
11k views

What is Lagrange Inversion good for?

I am planning an introductory combinatorics course (mixed grad-undergrad) and am trying to decide whether it is worth budgeting a day for Lagrange inversion. The reason I hesitate is that I know of ...
53
votes
7answers
5k views

Euler-Maclaurin formula and Riemann-Roch

Let $Df$ denote the derivative of a function $f(x)$ and $\bigtriangledown f=f(x)-f(x-1)$ be the discrete derivative. Using the Taylor series expansion for $f(x-1)$, we easily get $\bigtriangledown = ...
61
votes
7answers
6k views

Existence of a zero-sum subset

Some time ago I heard this question and tried playing around with it. I've never succeeded to making actual progress. Here it goes: Given a finite (nonempty) set of real numbers, $S=\{a_1,a_2,\dots, ...
69
votes
3answers
5k views

Wanted: a “Coq for the working mathematician”

Sorry for a possibly off-topic question -- there are four StackExchange subs each of which could be construed as the proper place for this question, and I've just picked the one I'm most familiar with....
42
votes
12answers
6k views

Combinatorial results without known combinatorial proofs

Stanley likes to keep a list of combinatorial results for which there is no known combinatorial proof. For example, until recently I believe the explicit enumeration of the de Brujin sequences fell ...
65
votes
4answers
5k views

What is the amplituhedron?

The paper ”Scattering Amplitudes and the Positive Grassmannian” by Nima Arkani-Hamed, Jacob L. Bourjaily, Freddy Cachazo, Alexander B. Goncharov, Alexander Postnikov, and Jaroslav Trnka, introduces ...
48
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37answers
5k views

Structures that turn out to exhibit a symmetry even though their definition doesn't

Sometimes (often?) a structure depending on several parameters turns out to be symmetric w.r.t. interchanging two of the parameters, even though the definition gives a priori no clue of that symmetry. ...
43
votes
4answers
7k views

Why are planar graphs so exceptional?

As compared to classes of graphs embeddable in other surfaces. Some ways in which they're exceptional: Mac Lane's and Whitney's criteria are algebraic characterizations of planar graphs. (Well, ...
35
votes
6answers
3k views

Why do Littlewood-Richardson coefficients describe the cohomology of the Grassmannian?

I'm looking for a "conceptual" explanation to the question in the title. The standard proofs that I've seen go as follows: use the Schubert cell decomposition to get a basis for cohomology and show ...
34
votes
14answers
18k views

What are the Applications of Hypergraphs

Hypergraphs are like simple graphs, except that instead of having edges that only connect 2 vertices, their edges are sets of any number of vertices. This happens to mean that all graphs are just a ...
40
votes
15answers
6k views

What does the generating function $x/(1 - e^{-x})$ count?

Let $x$ be a formal (or small, since the function is analytic) variable, and consider the power series $$ A(x) = \frac{x}{1 - e^{-x}} = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \left( -\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-x)^n}{(n+1)!}...
54
votes
1answer
2k views

Intersecting Family of Triangulations

Let $\cal T_n$ be the family of all triangulations on an $n$-gon using $(n-3)$ non-intersecting diagonals. The number of triangulations in $\cal T_n$ is $C_{n-2}$ the $(n-2)$th Catalan number. Let $\...
47
votes
4answers
8k views

Do there exist chess positions that require exponentially many moves to reach?

By "chess" here I mean chess played on an $n\times n$ board with an unbounded number of (non-king) pieces. Some care is needed if you want to generalize some of the subtler rules of chess to an $n\...
41
votes
2answers
2k views

Numbers that are generic w.r.t. exponentiation

This is a follow-up to my old question Number of distinct values taken by $x\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}x\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}\dots\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}x$ with parentheses inserted in all possible ways. ...