# Questions tagged [cauchy-schwarz-inequality]

The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality states $|\langle x,y \rangle |\leq ||x||\cdot ||y||.$ Use this tag for questions related to the CS inequality and its applications.

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### Inequality involving random vectors and absolute values

Let $\mathbb{X}, \mathbb{Y} \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be finite sets. Suppose random vectors $X \in \mathbb{X}$ and $Y \in \mathbb{Y}$ are sampled according to a joint distribution $\mathbb{P}_{XY}$. ...

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### Prove inequality: $2\Big[ \sum_{k=0}^{n} (k+1) a_k \Big]^2 -\Big[1+ \sum_{k=0}^{n} a_k \Big]\Big[ \sum_{k=0}^{n} k(k+1)a_k \Big] \geq 0.$

Suppose $a_0\geq\dots \geq a_n \geq 0$ is a sequence of non-negative numbers, where $n+1\leq \sum_{k=0}^{n} a_k \leq n+2$. Then, I want to prove that the following statement is true,
$2\Big[ \sum_{k=0}...

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### Cauchy-Schwarz-like inequality with a power $p$ term

We set :
$\phi_1, \phi_2 : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}^M$ with compact support
$\theta \in \mathbb{R}^M$ non-zero, $\theta_{p-1} = (\operatorname{sign}(\theta_i)|\theta_i|^{p-1})_{1 \leq i \leq M} \in \...

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### Inequality for normed power n, m

Let $ B (H) $ indicate the set of all bounded linear operators on a complex separable Hilbert space $ H $.
Let $ A \in B(H) $, where $ A $ is a positive semi-definite operator in $ H $ (i.e. $ \langle ...

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### Prove that sum of eigenvalues of the inverse of an nxn correlation matrix A is greater than or equal to n

I stuck on this question and here is my thoughts:
So we have a nxn correlation matrix A with eigenvalues: λ_1,λ_2,...,λ_n
1.According to the property of correlation matrix, (λ_1)+(λ_2) + ... + (λ_n) = ...

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### How to prove that $1/ ((y+z) x^4) + 1/ ((z+x) y^4) + 1/ ((x+y) z^4) \geq 3/2$ for $x, y, z>0$ such that $xyz=1$? [closed]

How to prove that $\dfrac{1}{(y+z) x^4} + \dfrac{1}{(x+z) y^4} + \dfrac{1}{(y+x) z^4}\geq3/2$ for $x, y, z>0$, such that $xyz=1$?

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### Stronger conjectured inequality for area of a polygon

Four years ago, I proposed an inequality related to area and sides of a polygon.
After computer checking, I conjecture that the previous inequality can be strengthened as follows:
Let $A_1A_2\cdots ...

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### Fractional reverse direction Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

If $Z_1,\dots,Z_r$ are complex $m\times m$-matrices, then let $\Phi(A_1,\dots,A_r):M_m(\mathbb{C})\rightarrow M_m(\mathbb{C})$ be the linear mapping defined by $\Phi(A_1,\dots,A_r)(X)=A_1XA_1^*+\dots+...

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### The inequality $\int^\infty_0 (\sin(rt)r^3/\sinh^2(r)) dr\leq cte^{-At}$

How to prove the following inequality $$\forall t>0,\quad\int^\infty_0 \sin(rt)\frac{r^3}{\sinh^2(r)} dr\leq c \big(te^{-At}\big)$$
for some constants $A>0,c>0$

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### Are these $L_2$-spectral radii approximations strictly increasing?

Suppose that $V$ is a finite dimensional complex Hilbert space. Let $L(V)$ denote the collection of all linear mappings from $V$ to $V$. Let $A_1,\dots,A_r:V\rightarrow V$ be linear operators. Then ...

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### When does the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for spectral radii of tensor products become equality?

Let $V$ be a complex finite dimensional inner product space. If $A_{1},\dots,A_{n}:V\rightarrow V$ are linear operators, then let $\Phi(A_{1},\dots,A_{n}):L(V)\rightarrow L(V)$ be the superoperator ...

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### General bivariate functions that satisfy Cauchy-Schwarz

Have there been any study of general bivariate functions $f:X \times X \to \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy $f(x,y)^2 \leq f(x,x)f(y,y)$. This comes up as a function I'm working with satisfies the asymmetric ...

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### Understanding statement about bounds of vector in the context of a RSDF ≤ₘ WOPT proof

I'm trying to follow the proof of Lemma 4 of "Strong NP-Hardness of the Quantum Separability Problem", by S. Gharibian, 2010 [1], which, roughly, states that there is a many-one reduction ...

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### Properties of a function $C_\ell(\ell)$ which checks an inequality in ideal case (decreasing assumption) and after estimating impact in general case

Suppose that
$X=2 \ell+1, Y=C_{\ell}$, both $X$ and $Y$ are function of $\ell$, $X$ is increasing and $Y$ is assuming to be decreasing.
But in reality, my data follow a $C_\ell$ increasing for a small ...

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### Is $N_\phi = \{x \in E: \phi(\langle x,x\rangle)=0\}$ a Hilbert submodule of $E$?

Let $E$ be a (right) Hilbert module over the $C^*$-algebra $B$. Let $\phi$ be a state on the $C^*$-algebra $B$. Then consider
$$N_\phi:= \{x \in E: \phi(\langle x,x\rangle)=0\}.$$
I want to show that $...

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### A completely positive equivariant map $\varphi: A \to B$ induces a map $A \rtimes_r \Gamma \to B \rtimes_r \Gamma.$

Recall the construction of the reduced crossed product:
Let $\Gamma$ be a discrete group and $A$ be a $C^*$-algebra with an action $\alpha: \Gamma\to \operatorname{Aut}(A)$. Consider the $*$-algebra $...

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### How is the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality used to bound this derivative?

In "Hardy's Uncertainty Principle, Convexity and Schrödinger Evolutions" (link) on page 5, the authors state that they are using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality to bound the derivative of the $...

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### Reverse Inequality

I was doing some numerical integration when I figured the function I was dealing with (i.e., the function I was integrating) evaluated to big numbers on a tiny portion of the interval (over which I ...

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### Higher order generalization of Cauchy-Schwarz?

Is there a generalization of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality along the following lines? Let $V$ be an inner product space (for simplicity of notation, let us work over the real numbers). Let $v_1, \...

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### Did Euler ever use anything similar to Cauchy's inequality?

This could be asked more provocatively, indeed how it arose, as "how did Euler do so much mathematics without using and/or knowing Cauchy's inequality?", something that came up in the ...

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### Tight sublinear estimates for a triple partial binomial summation

Is there tight estimates for the following logarithmic summation ($\gamma,\gamma'\in(0,1)$ and $\mu,\mu'>0$)
$$\log_2\Bigg(\sum_{t=\frac{n^{}}2-n^\gamma\sqrt{\mu\ln n}}^{\frac{n^{}}2+n^\gamma\sqrt{...

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### Tight estimates for binomial summation

Is there tight estimates for the following logarithmic summation ($\gamma\in(0,1)$)
$$\ln\Bigg(\sum_{t=\frac{n^{}}2-\gamma n^\gamma}^{\frac{n^{}}2+\gamma n^\gamma}\sum_{\ell=\frac{n^{}}2-\gamma n^\...

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### Good upper bound for a certain sum

Given $\gamma \in [0, 1)$, an integer $N \ge 2$, and a decreasing null sequence of positive numbers $e_1,e_2,\ldots,e_t,\ldots$, I'm interested in estimating the sum $S_N := \sum_{t=1}^N\gamma^t e_{N-...

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### Good upper-bound for $\mathbb E[|X-np|^r]$ where $X \sim \text{Binomial}(n,p)$ and $r \ge 1$

Disclaimer. Question moved from SE.
Setup
Let $X \sim \text{Binomial}(p, n)$, and $r \ge 1$.
Question
What is a good upper-bound for $\mathbb E[|X-np|^r]$ ?
Solution for small $r$
If $r=2$, then ...

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### Bounds for $\sum_{t=1}^Tn_t(s_t)^{-\alpha}\mu(s_t)$ where $n_t(s) = \sum_{1 \le t' \le t} 1_{\{s_{t'}=s\}}$ for $s \in [k]$ and $\mu \in \Delta_k$

Disclaimer: I'm not certain this is the right venue for this post, but I'll give it a try...
So trying prove some bounds in my ongoing work in theoretical reinforcement learning, I encountered the ...

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### Is there a tight lower bound for the expectation of the product of two positive valued random variables?

Let $X,Y$ be two (dependent) random variables with $\mathbb{P}(X\ge 0)=\mathbb{P}(Y\ge 0)=1$.
I want to find a tight lower bound of $\mathbb{E}(XY)$ when $X,Y$ are non-negative, almost surely.
...

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### Inequality involving product-of-minus vs minus-of-product for positive integers

I'm encountering this inequality for dimensionality reduction problem. The simplified form looks as follows:
Consider positive integers $a_1$, $a_2$, $b_1$ and $b_2$ where $a_1>b_1$ and $a_2>...

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### A moment inequality

Let $\chi(s)=\int_{0}^{1}x(t)^{s}f(t)dt$,
where $x(t)$ and $f(t)$ are real valued continuous functions for
$t\in[0,1]$, and $f(t)\geq0$.
Is it possible to show that
$\left(\chi(0)\chi(2)-\chi(1)^{2}...

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### Is it possible to find $f$ such that : $f$ is absolutely integrable, $f'$ is absolutely integrable and such that $f$ is not $1/2$-Hölder

I am trying to find a function $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}^+$ that fullfils the following conditions
$$f \in \mathcal{C}^1(\mathbb{R}^+,\mathbb{R}^+)$$
$$\int_{\mathbb{R}^+} f \in \mathbb{R}^+$$
...

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### On the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality for trace function of random matrices

In the deterministic case, for two matrices $A$ and $B$ with appropriate matrices, we know that
$$tr((A^{T}B)^{2})\leq tr(A^{T}A)tr(B^{T}B)$$
which is the trace form of Cauchy-Schwarz-Inequality (CSI)....

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### A probabilistic angle inequality

Conjecture: There is a universal constant $c$ such that for any fixed nonzero real vector $q$ of any dimension $n$ and any random vector $p$ of the same dimension $n$ with independent components ...

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### An inequality involving a sum of power terms

I am currently working in a problem in Information Theory and I came across a difficult inequality. After many attemps, I simplified the inequality, which now looks at follows.
Consider a positive ...

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### An alternative proof of Bayesian Cramer-Rao

My question is:
Are there an alternative proof of Cramer-Rao lower bound that does not use
Cauchy-Swartz inequality?
Let me outline the classical proof and explain why I am interested in this ...

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### Upper bound of $\frac{\sum_i c_ia_ie_i}{\sum_i d_ib_if_i}$?

Let $\sum_i c_i =\sum_i d_i=1$, where $c_i,d_i \ge 0$. Assume that $\frac{\sum_i c_ia_i}{\sum_i d_ib_i} \le \epsilon_1$ and $\frac{\sum_i c_ie_i}{\sum_i d_if_i} \le \epsilon_2$, where $a_i,b_i,e_i,f_i ...

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### Does the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality imply 2-positivity?

Recall the following generalisation of Cauchy–Schwarz.
Theorem. Let $f\colon \mathscr{A} \to \mathscr{B}$ be a linear 2-positive map between C$^*$-algebras. Then for all $a,b \in \mathscr{A}$ we ...

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### Majorization of cyclic products

Let $k,m,n\in\mathbb N$ such that $n>k$. For a partition $\alpha=(\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_k)\vdash m$ with $\alpha_1\ge\dots\ge \alpha_k>0$ and nonnegative $ x_1,\dots,x_n$ define $x^\alpha :=\...

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### Does this simple inequality have a name?

Let $x_{1},\ldots,x_{n}$ be nonnegative numbers such that $m \leq x_{i} \leq M$. Let
$$
S=\sum_{i=1}^{n}{x_{i}}
$$
and
$$
Q=\sum_{i=1}^{n}{x_{i}^{2}}.
$$
Then
$$
Q \leq S(M+m)-nMm.
$$
This has ...

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### A stronger Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for traces of compression matrices

Assume that $A$ and $B$ are contractions, so
$I-AA^T$ and $I-BB^T$ are positive-definite matrices. Let
$C=(I-AB^T)^{-1}(I-AA^{T})(I-BA^{T})^{-1}$, and show that:
$$Tr\left(\frac{1}{1-AA^T}\right)...

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### A homogeneous but slightly asymmetric inequality

I need to prove the following inequality: for any $Z=(z_1,\dots,z_l)\in\mathbb{C}^l$ for any $p\geq 2$ and $l\geq 2$
\begin{equation}
\left|\left|\sum_{j=1}^l z_j\right|^p-\sum_{j=1}^l\left|z_j\right|^...

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### Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for bilinear forms valued in an abstract vector space

I previously posted this question on Math.SE but didn't receive an answer. It is perhaps a little vague; part of what I want to know is what question I should ask.
First, consider the following form ...

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### Can the fact that the square of an integer is a natural number be categorified?

If $a$ and $b$ are natural numbers, then $a-b$ is an integer and so the square $(a-b)^2$ is a natural number. In particular
$$ (a-b)^2 \geq 0. \qquad (1)$$
Combining this fact with the identity
$$ ...

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### An Linear Algebra Inequality

How to prove the following inequality:
Let $X$ and $Y$ be $n\times m$ matrices with real entries. Prove that
\begin{equation}
\det\left(XY^T\right)^2 \leq \det\left(XX^T\right)\det\left(YY^T\right) .
\...

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### A plausible inequality

I come across the following problem in my study.
Let $x_i, y_i\in \mathbb{R}, i=1,2,\cdots,n$ with $\sum\limits_{i=1}^nx_i^2=\sum\limits_{i=1}^ny_i^2=1$, and $a_1\ge a_2\ge \cdots \ge a_n>0 $. Is ...

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### Is there a combinatorial proof of Cauchy-Schwarz?

I've only played with this a little for the past day or so, and haven't thought about it too hard, so it might be obvious. Obviously it's not fair to ask for a "combinatorial proof" of an inequality ...

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### Cauchy-Schwarz and pigeonhole

I've occasionally heard it stated (most notably on Terry Tao's blog) that "the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality can be viewed as a quantitative strengthening of the pigeonhole principle." I've certainly seen ...