# Questions tagged [cardinal-arithmetic]

The cardinal-arithmetic tag has no usage guidance.

47
questions

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### How can we know the well-foundedness of $\epsilon_0$?

I think the question can be quite philosophical, but I see that $WF(\epsilon_0)$ is widely accepted as one of the attributes of the natural numbers.
Gentzen proved $Con(PA)$ with $PRA+WF(\epsilon_0)$....

**2**

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**0**answers

206 views

### Cardinal numbers and the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem

Let $\kappa$ be a cardinal number, define $\textsf{M}(\kappa)$ and $\textsf{BW}(\kappa)$ as follows:
$\textsf{M}(\kappa)$ : For every sequence $(f_{n}:\kappa\to \mathbb{R})_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ of real-...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### Model in $\mathsf{ZFC}$ such that ${\cal P}(\ldots)$ has “jumping property”

Is there a model of $\mathsf{ZFC}$ such that for every cardinal $\beta > \aleph_0$ there is a cardinal $\alpha < \beta$ such that $|{\cal P}(\alpha)|
>\beta$?

**4**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### Cardinal exponentiations inequality

Let $\kappa < \beth_2$ and $\lambda<\beth_1$ be cardinals. What can we say about $\kappa^{\lambda}$ without assuming CH? Is it true that $\kappa^{\lambda} < \beth_2$ or $\kappa^{<\beth_1} &...

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90 views

### Can the cardinality of the set of all intervening cardinals between sets and their power sets be always singular?

This is a question that I've posted to Mathematics Stack Exchange, that was un-answered.
To re-iterate it here:
Is the following known to be consistent relative to some large cardinal assumption?
$...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

127 views

### Self-embeddings of uncountable total orders

A nice theorem of Dushnik and Miller (from 1940) states that if $(\Omega,\leq)$ is a countable total order, then either
there is an element $\omega \in \Omega$ such that $(\Omega \setminus \{\omega\}...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

419 views

### Raising the index of accessibility

In the standard reference books Locally presentable and accessible categories (Adamek-Rosicky, Theorem 2.11) and Accessible categories (Makkai-Pare, $\S$2.3), it is shown that for regular cardinals $\...

**8**

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280 views

### Model for “$\kappa$ limit cardinal iff $2^\kappa$ limit cardinal”

Is there a model of ${\sf (ZFC)}$ such that in the model we have that $\kappa$ is a limit cardinal if and only if $2^\kappa$ is a limit cardinal?

**6**

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150 views

### Categorifying Hyperoperations

Is there some categorical version of tetration or higher hyperoperations?
This is motivated by the fact that coproducts categorify addition of finite cardinals, and products/exponentials categorify ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

166 views

### Generic two-cardinal behavior of first-order sentences

This is a hopefully improved version of a question I asked before and then deleted because it was based on some fundamentally incorrect assumptions.
Some first-order theories are able to control the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

107 views

### Approximation on separable topological space with size $\mathfrak{c}$

Let $X$ be a separable topological space of size $\mathfrak{c}$. By a simple function $\phi:X\to X$, we mean a finite range valued measurable function.
Q. Is it possible to find a sequence of ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

138 views

### On minimal generating sets of certain submodules

All our rings are commutative with unity.
For an $R$-module $M$ and a submodule $N$ of $M$ and ideal $I$ of $R$, let $(N:I):=\{m\in M : Im \subseteq N\}$. Let $\mu (M)$ denote the least cardinality ...

**16**

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465 views

### Gitik's work on Shelah's weak hypothesis

It seems that Moti Gitik has recently refuted some variants of Shelah's weak hypothesis. For this see the title and abstract of his talk at the Set Theory, Model Theory and Applications conference.
I ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

255 views

### Simultaneous failure of weak diamond

Let $\lambda$ be an infinite cardinal. Recall that Weak diamond $\Phi_S$ on $S\subseteq\lambda^+$ is the following principle:
For every function $F:2^{<\lambda^+}\rightarrow 2$, there exists $g\in ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### Cardinality of generating sets of faithful modules over integral domain

Let $R$ be an integral domain. Let $\alpha$ be an infinite cardinal . Let $M$ be a faithful $R$-module such that $\mu(M)< \alpha$ . Let $N$ be a submodule of $M$ and $m\in M$ and $r\in R$ be such ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

136 views

### On cardinality of generating subsets of some submodules

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unity. Let $\alpha$ be an infinite cardinal . Let $M$ be an $R$-module such that $\mu(M)< \alpha$ . Let $N$ be a submodule of $M$ and $m\in M$ and $r\in R$ be ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

560 views

### Dominating families in bigger cardinals

A dominating family on $\omega^\omega$ is a set $\mathcal D \subset \omega^\omega$ such that for every $f \in \omega^\omega$ there exists $g \in \mathcal D$ such that $f<^* g$ (that is, $f(n)<g(...

**10**

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344 views

### Injection from $\aleph_2$ into the power set of $\mathbb{R}$

Assume $\mathsf{ZF} + \mathsf{DC}$. Must there exist an injection from $\aleph_2$ to $\mathcal{P}(\mathbb{R})$? If not, what is the consistency strength of the nonexistence of such an injection?
I ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

226 views

### Does Laver Forcing add an infinitely often equal real?

Given a model $V$ of set theory and an inner model $W \subseteq V$, a real $x \in V \cap \omega^\omega$ is infinitely often equal over $W$ if for each real $y \in \omega^\omega$ there are infinitely $...

**9**

votes

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310 views

### What is the cofinality of $([\kappa]^\omega, \subseteq)$?

For an uncountable cardinal $\kappa$, we are interested in the least size of a cofinal subset of the partial order $([\kappa]^\omega, \subseteq)$. It is obvious that this cofinality is at least $\...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

434 views

### Reals which must, can't or might be added by forcing

Let $W \subseteq V$ be an inner model of ZFC. There are a variety of theorems that characterize when a real $x \in V$ is the generic of a forcing notion $\mathbb P \in W$, for example, the ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

368 views

### Cardinality of ${\mathbb{C}_p}$ [closed]

I know, that field ${\mathbb{Q}_p}$ (field of p-adic numbers) has the same cardinality as $\mathbb{C}$. Taking algebraic closure doesn't change the cardinality of infinite field, so cardinality $\...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

407 views

### Fixed points of cardinal logarithm

For any cardinal $\kappa$ set $$\log(\kappa) = \min\{\mu\in \kappa\cup\{\kappa\}: 2^\mu \geq \kappa\}.$$
Clearly $\log(\omega) = \omega$ and in $\textsf{GCH}$ we have $\log(\aleph_\omega) = \aleph_\...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

186 views

### Getting PFA + GCH above $\omega$

The Proper Forcing Axiom kills CH in a particularly specific way: it implies that $2^{\aleph_0}=\aleph_2$. However, its impact on the continuum function above $\aleph_0$ is much less clear. It is ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

209 views

### Wondering if the following set-theoretic assertion is known to be consistent w/ ZFC

I'm wondering about the following (I've written a couple set theory papers but don't consider myself a set theorist, so please keep this in mind when answering):
Is it consistent w/ ZFC that there ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

764 views

### Direct axiomatization of ordinal and cardinal numbers

Again, this question is related (**) to a previous one:
in standard books on basic set theory, after stating the axioms of ZFC, ordinal numbers are introduced early on. Afterwards cardinals appear: ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

576 views

### When can Power Sets be Limit Cardinals?

My original question (posted in https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1584430/can-all-power-sets-be-limit-cardinals) was:
Is it possible to create a model of ZFC, so that the cardinality of each ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

155 views

### Ordinals which embed in surreal subfields

If $k$ is an ordered field, the least ordinal $s(k)$ which doesn't embed in $(k,<)$ is regular. This is because every interval of an ordered field embeds in every infinite interval so given a ...

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**1**answer

1k views

### Does “cardinal arithmetic is well-defined” imply axiom of choice?

Let me quickly explain what I mean with my question.
Let $(\kappa_i)_{i\in I}$ be a collection of cardinal numbers, indexed by elements of some set $I$. We can try to define $\sum\limits_{i\in I}\...

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**4**answers

2k views

### Is it possible to define higher cardinal arithmetics

In number theory there are several operators like addition, multiplication and exponentiation defined from $\omega\times\omega$ to $\omega$. Each of them is defined as an ...

**7**

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769 views

### Exponentiation and Dedekind-finite cardinals

It is known that the sum and the product of two Dedekind-finite cardinals are also Dedekind-finite cardinals. What about cardinal exponentiation ?
Question: Let A and B be two Dedekind-finite ...

**16**

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**0**answers

663 views

### Ideas behind Gitik's solution of PCF conjecture

Recently Moti Gitik has refuted Shelah's PCF conjecture (see Short extenders forcings II ) by proving the following theorem:
Theorem. Assuming the consistency of infinitely many strong cardinals, one ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

381 views

### For which cardinal numbers $\kappa$ is it consistent with ZFC that $\kappa^{\mathrm{cf}(\kappa)} < \kappa^\kappa$?

ZFC proves that $\kappa^{\mathrm{cf}(\kappa)} \leq \kappa^\kappa$ for all infinite cardinal numbers $\kappa$. Further, it is consistent with ZFC that we always have equality (e.g. assume GCH).
...

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368 views

### When are all greater cardinals sharply greater?

Makkai and Paré introduced the following binary relation on regular cardinals: given $\kappa$ and $\lambda$, $\kappa \vartriangleleft \lambda$ (read, $\kappa$ is sharply less than $\lambda$) when $\...

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380 views

### Prevalent singular cardinals hypothesis

The following notion is introduced by Assaf Rinot:
Definition. A singular cardinal $\kappa$ is a prevalent singular
cardinal iff there exists a family $\mathbb{A}\subset P(\kappa)$ with $|\mathbb{A}...

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504 views

### Consistency strength of the failure of Shelah's Strong Hypothesis (SSH)

Some known facts about SSH (Shelah's Strong Hypothesis):
i) "$0^\sharp$ does not exist" implies SSH.
ii) SSH implies SCH (Singular Cardinal Hypothesis).
iii) The failure of SCH is equiconsistent ...

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**0**answers

240 views

### Other variants of the Shelah's Weak Hypothesis

The paper
Menachem Kojman. Splitting families of sets in ZFC.
arXiv:1209.1307
presents these variants of the Shelah's Weak Hypothesis:
$$
(\textrm{SWH}_n) \textrm{ There are no infinite } \nu ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### Possible troubles in Shelah's book “Cardinal Arithmetic”

I found some possible troubles in Observation 5.3(7) in the Chapter II of the Shelah's book "Cardinal Arithmetic" (page 86). For convenience, I quote the result and the proof in the book here (...

**9**

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**1**answer

487 views

### Some variants of the Shelah's Weak Hypothesis

Are equivalent (in ZFC) the following two statements, for any infinite cardinal $\mu$?
(i) For every infinite cardinal $\kappa$, $|\{ \lambda \in \kappa : \lambda \textrm{ is a singular cardinal and} ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

631 views

### “cov vs pp” problem

This is the problem $(\beta)$ of the section 14.7 in the "Analytical Guide" of the Shelah's book "Cardinal Arithmetic":
$(\beta)$ Is $\operatorname{cov} ( \lambda , \lambda, \aleph_{1} , 2) =^{+} \...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

187 views

### Subquotients in ZF

In ZF we have the two relations $A \leq B$ and $A \leq^\ast B$ which relate the size of sets: the first says there is an injection from $A$ to $B$, the second that there is a surjection from $B$ to $A$...

**5**

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**4**answers

400 views

### do behavior of gimel or GCH determine all infinte products of cardinals?

Let $Card$ be the class of infinite cardinals and $p\colon Card^2\to Card$ be given by $(\kappa,\lambda)\mapsto\kappa^\lambda$.
Assuming GCH it is known that $p(\kappa,\lambda)$ is either $\kappa$ (if ...

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vote

**1**answer

493 views

### Cardinal Arithmetic, foundations and constructive math

This is not my area but a question occurred to me that I can not find the answer to. There is a very strong axiom of constructibility which ironically gives us highly non-constructive math (GCH is one ...

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votes

**1**answer

460 views

### About the notions of Grothendieck Universe and Tarski Universe

I assume ZFC.
Let $U$ a set with the following (1), (2), (3):
1) $\omega\in U$
2) $x\in U\ \Rightarrow x\subset U$
3) $x\in U\ \Rightarrow \mathcal{P}(x)\in U$ (where $\mathcal{P}(x):=${$y| y\...

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**1**answer

387 views

### A question about cardinal arithmetic

Let [J]: Jech "Set theory" (Millenium edition)
Let $\kappa$ a limit ordinal.
From [J], T.3.11, p. 33 we have that $\kappa<\kappa^{cf(\kappa)}$.
I improved that proof, and obtain :
$\kappa <...

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**1**answer

581 views

### Does this “jumping-ahead” ordinal function exist?

While working on a project in operator algebras with a collaborator (and fellow MO user), we are able to successfully complete a transfinite induction assuming that the following has an affirmative ...

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525 views

### Is there always an uncountable $\kappa$ such that $\kappa^{\aleph_0}=2^\kappa$?

The cardinal equation $\kappa^{\aleph_0}=2^\kappa$ is satisfied by $\kappa=\aleph_0$.
It is also satisfied by any $\kappa$ for which $MA(\kappa)$ holds.
Under $GCH$, the equation is satisfied by $\...