# Questions tagged [ca.classical-analysis-and-odes]

Special functions, orthogonal polynomials, harmonic analysis, ordinary differential equations (ODE's), differential relations, calculus of variations, approximations, expansions, asymptotics.

271 questions

**10**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Limit cycles as closed geodesics(in negatively or positively curved space)

EDIT: Here is a related post which concern quadratic vector fields rather than Van der pol equation. In this linked post we see that the convexity of limit cycle play a crucial role. On ...

**45**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Does the formal power series solution to $f(f(x))= \sin( x) $ converge?

I have spent some time using gp-pari. There is, of course, a formal power series solution to
$ f(f(x)) = \sin x.$ It is displayed below, identified by the symbol $g$ because I am not entirely sure ...

**93**

votes

**11**answers

20k views

### How to solve $f(f(x)) = \cos(x)$?

I found the following interesting equation on some web page I cannot remember:
$f(f(x))=\cos(x)$
Out of curiosity I tried to solve it, but realized that I do not have a clue how to approach such an ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

874 views

### Asymptotic approximation of $x^\alpha$ by entire functions

Given a non-integral real $\alpha$, is there an entire (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entire_function) function $h(x)$ such that $x^{-\alpha}h(x)\longrightarrow 1$
for $x\rightarrow+\infty$ (with $...

**81**

votes

**4**answers

21k views

### Is the analysis as taught in universities in fact the analysis of definable numbers?

Ten years ago, when I studied in university, I had no idea about definable numbers, but I came to this concept myself. My thoughts were as follows:
All numbers are divided into two classes: those ...

**47**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### Is there a category structure one can place on measure spaces so that category-theoretic products exist?

The usual category of measure spaces consists of objects $(X, \mathcal{B}_X, \mu_X)$, where $X$ is a space, $\mathcal{B}_X$ is a $\sigma$-algebra on $X$, and $\mu_X$ is a measure on $X$, and measure ...

**40**

votes

**10**answers

18k views

### Does the exponential function have a (compositional) square root?

(asked by Nathaniel Hellerstein on the Q&A board at JMM)
Is there a "half-exponential" function $h(x)$ such that $h(h(x))=e^x$? Is it unique? Is it analytic?
Related question: Is there an ...

**35**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### Geometric interpretation of the half-derivative?

For $f(x)=x$, the half-derivative of $f$ is
$$\frac{d^{\frac{1}{2}}}{dx^{\frac{1}{2}}} x = 2 \sqrt{\frac{x}{\pi}} \;.$$
Is there some geometric interpretation of (Q1) this specific derivative, and, (...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Binomial again, and again

Let $\lceil a\rceil=$ the smallest integer $\geq a$, otherwise known as the ceiling function. When the arguments are real, interpret $\binom{a}b$ using the Euler's gamma function, $\Gamma$.
Recently, ...

**13**

votes

**7**answers

10k views

### If d/dx is an operator, on what does it operate?

If $\frac{d}{dx}$ is a differential operator, what are its inputs? If the answer is "(differentiable) functions" (i.e., variable-agnostic sets of ordered pairs), we have difficulty distinguishing ...

**30**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Do these properties characterize differentiation?

Let $L: C^\infty(\mathbb{R}) \to C^\infty(\mathbb{R})$ be a linear operator which satisfies:
$L(1) = 0$
$L(x) = 1$
$L(f \cdot g) = f \cdot L(g) + g \cdot L(f)$
Is $L$ necessarily the derivative? ...

**23**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### An explicit series representation for the analytic tetration with complex height

Tetration is the next hyperoperation after more familiar addition, multiplication and exponentiation. It can be seen as a repeated exponentiation, similar to how exponentiation can be seen as a ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

807 views

### Solution of linear ODE

Let $A=A(t)$ be a smooth one parameter family of $n\times n$-matrices, $n\ge 2$.
It seems that the solution of linear ODE
$$\dot x= Ax$$
can not be written in a closed form using $\int$, $A$, $x(0)$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### $\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}{k^\alpha} >0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi, \text{and}\ \alpha \ge 1$

The Fejer-Jackson inequality as follows:
$$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}k>0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi.$$
I conjecture that the inequality as follows holds:
$...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

583 views

### functions with orthogonal Jacobian

I'm working on a model that would require to use vectorial functions of $\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$, such that $\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}^n$, $\lVert \frac{df(x)}{dx}(y) \lVert_2 = \...

**117**

votes

**6**answers

10k views

### Source and context of $\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 dx/(1+x^2)$?

Possibly the most striking proof of Archimedes's inequality $\pi < 22/7$ is an integral formula for the difference:
$$
\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 \frac{dx}{1+x^2},
$$
where the ...

**23**

votes

**5**answers

14k views

### Criteria to determine whether a real-coefficient polynomial has real root?

Given a polynomial equation $x^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1x+a_0=0$, where $n$ is even and all the coefficients $a_i$ are real, what is the best way to determine whether it has a real root or not?
I ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Criteria for boundedness of power series

Consider a power series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$ that is convergent for all real
x, thus defining a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$.
Can one give necessary and sufficient criteria the ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

5k views

### Conditions for smooth dependence of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix on a set of parameters

Let $A\in\mathcal M_n$ be an $n\times n$ real [symmetric] matrix which depends smoothly on a [finite] set of parameters, $A=A(\xi_1,\ldots,\xi_k)$. We can view it as a smooth function $A:\mathbb R^k\...

**76**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### History of $\frac d{dt}\tan^{-1}(t)=\frac 1{1+t^2}$

Let $\theta = \tan^{-1}(t)$. Nowadays it is taught:
1º that
$$
\frac{d\theta}{dt} = \frac 1{dt\,/\,d\theta} = \frac 1{1+t^2},
\tag1
$$
2º that, via the fundamental theorem of calculus, this is ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

676 views

### Multiple Integral (American Mathematical Monthly problem 11621 and its generalization)

AMM problem 11621 asks to calculate the integral
$$I_2=\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}ds_1\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_1}ds_2
\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_2}ds_3\int\limits_{-\infty}^{s_3}ds_4
\;\cos{(s_1^2-...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

405 views

### “sinc-ing” integral

Let $a_1,\dots,a_n, b$ be positive real numbers.
*Question.** Is this true?
$$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{\sin(bx+a_1x+\cdots+a_nx)}{x}\prod_{j=1}^n\frac{\sin(a_jx)}{a_jx}\,\,dx=\pi.$$
My ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

764 views

### Convergence of Newton series for sin ax

Let's define half discrete-analytic function as a function whose Newton series converges to that function for each $x>0$:
$$f(x)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty \binom{x}k \Delta^k f\left (0\right)=\sum_{m=0}^{\...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### Reference for a lemma on the asymptotic upper density of special sets with large gaps and intervals

Update. Based on Anthony Quas' comment below, the proof can be made sensibly shorter and the lemma can be slightly generalized by weakening the old assumption (iii).
In a joint paper that I am ...

**151**

votes

**17**answers

26k views

### How do I make the conceptual transition from multivariable calculus to differential forms?

One way to define the algebra of differential forms $\Omega(M)$ on a smooth manifold $M$ (as explained by John Baez's week287) is as the exterior algebra of the dual of the module of derivations on ...

**141**

votes

**32**answers

52k views

### What is convolution intuitively?

If random variable $X$ has a probability distribution of $f(x)$ and random variable $Y$ has a probability distribution $g(x)$ then $(f*g)(x)$, the convolution of $f$ and $g$, is the probability ...

**119**

votes

**17**answers

26k views

### Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by parts/...

**76**

votes

**25**answers

11k views

### Probabilistic Proofs of Analytic Facts

What are some interesting examples of probabilistic reasoning to establish results that would traditionally be considered analysis? What I mean by "probabilistic reasoning" is that the approach should ...

**62**

votes

**9**answers

12k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**96**

votes

**4**answers

17k views

### Does the inverse function theorem hold for everywhere differentiable maps?

(This question was posed to me by a colleague; I was unable to answer it, so am posing it here instead.)
Let $f: {\bf R}^n \to {\bf R}^n$ be an everywhere differentiable map, and suppose that at each ...

**27**

votes

**25**answers

41k views

### Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?

**44**

votes

**9**answers

3k views

### Undergraduate ODE textbook following Rota

I imagine many people are familiar with the extremely entertaining article "Ten Lessons I Wish I Had Learned Before I Started Teaching Differential Equations" by Gian-Carlo Rota. (If you're not, do ...

**54**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Every real function has a dense set on which its restriction is continuous

The title says it all: if $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is any real function, there exists a dense subset $D$ of $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f|_D$ is continuous.
Or so I'm told, but this leaves me ...

**42**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### On an example of an eventually oscillating function

For $x\in(0,1)$, put
$$f(x):=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{n}x^{2^{n}}.$$
This function possesses interesting properties. It grows monotonically from $0$ up to certain point. Then it starts to oscillate ...

**40**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Alternating sum of square roots of binomial coefficients

Let
$$ c_n = \sum_{r=0}^n (-1)^r \sqrt{\binom{n}{r}}. $$
It is clear that $c_n = 0$ if $n$ is odd. Remarkably, it appears that despite the huge positive and negative contributions in the sum ...

**23**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Universality of zeta- and L-functions

Voronin´s Universality Theorem (for the Riemann zeta-Function) according to Wikipedia: Let $U$ be a compact subset of the "critical half-strip" $\{s\in\mathbb{C}:\frac{1}{2}<Re(s)<1\}$ with ...

**33**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Must the set of lines through the origin on which a nonconstant entire function is bounded be finite?

If an entire function is bounded for all $z \in \mathbb{C}$, than it's a constant by Liouville's theorem. Of course an entire function can be bounded on lines through the origin $z=r \exp(i \phi), \...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of $L^\infty(X,\mu)$,...

**22**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### Function with range equal to whole reals on every open set

There is an example of a function that is unbounded on every open set. Just take $f(n/m) = m$ for coprime $n$ and $m$ and $f(irrational) = 0$.
I want to generalize this in a way to get a function ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Ideals of the ring of smooth functions

The ring $C^\infty(M)$ of smooth functions on a smooth manifold $M$ is a topological ring with respect to the Whitney topology and the usual ring operations. Is it possible to describe, maybe under ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Is a real power series that maps rationals to rationals defined by a rational function?

Suppose that the function $p(x)$ is defined on an open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{R}$ by a power series with real coefficients. Suppose, further, that $p$ maps rationals to rationals. Must $p$ be defined ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Can always a family of symmetric real matrices depending smoothly on a real parameter be diagonalized by smooth similarity transformations?

This question is related to another question, but it is definitely not the same.
Is it always possible to diagonalize (at least locally around each point) a family of symmetric real matrices $A(t)$ ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Existence/Uniqueness of solutions to quasi-Lipschitz ODEs

Would the Picard–Lindelöf theorem still be true if the requirement that f be Lipschitz continuous in y was replaced with the requirement that f be almost Lipschitz in y?
If not, are there any moduli ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

737 views

### Rearrangements that never change the value of a sum

I posted this question on math.stackexchange.com and so far the only answer posted (also mentioned in the comments under the question) shows that one of my rash initial guesses about the bottom-line ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Density of smooth functions under “Hölder metric”

This question came up when I was doing some reading into convolution squares of singular measures. Recall a function $f$ on the torus $T = [-1/2,1/2]$ is said to be $\alpha$-Hölder (for $0 < \alpha ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### $f'=e^{f^{-1}}$, again

This question is a spin-off of this one, in which the OP asks whether there is a solution $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ of the functional equation (not exactly an ODE) $f'=e^{f^{-1}}$, where $f^{-1}$ is ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### What does the σ in σ-algebra stand for?

I was tutoring someone in analysis and realized I have no idea where this notation comes from (or analogous terms: σ-additive, σ-ring, etc). I would like to know why the letter σ was chosen. I can't ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What's a natural candidate for an analytic function that interpolates the tower function?

I know that there are analytic functions whose composition with itself is the exponential function, the so-called functional square root of the exponential function, with the additional property that ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is $\varliminf_{n \rightarrow +\infty} |n \sin n| = 0$ correct, where $n$ is an integer?

Is it true that $\varliminf_{n \rightarrow +\infty} |n \sin n| = 0$, where $n$
runs over the integers?
The existence of the limes inferior follows from Dirichlet's approximation theorem,
but the ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### On the behaviour of $\sin(n!\pi x)$ when $x$ is irrational.

Hi,
I'm interested in the behaviour of the sequence $(\sin(n!\pi x))$, when $x$ is irrational, as $n$ tends to infinity.
1) Is the sequence dense in $(-1,1)$?
or
2) Is it possible that for some ...