# Questions tagged [braid-groups]

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### Do the ternary braid groups arise in algebraic topology?

Let $TB_{n}$ be the group defined by the presentation with generators $t_{1},...,t_{n-2}$ and relations $t_{i}t_{i+1}t_{i+2}t_{i}=t_{i+2}t_{i}t_{i+1}t_{i+2}$
and $t_{i}t_{j}=t_{j}t_{i}$ whenever $|i-j|...

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### Examples of Yang-Baxter monoids

Then we say that an algebra $(X,f,g,\circ,1)$ is a Yang-Baxter monoid if it satisfies the following identities:
$(X,\circ,1)$ is a monoid,
$f(x,1)=1,f(1,x)=x,g(x,1)=x,g(1,x)=1$
$x\circ y=f(x,y)\circ ...

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### Permutative Yang-Baxter monoids

Suppose that $f,g:X^{2}\rightarrow X,T:X^{2}\rightarrow X^{2}$ are mappings such that $T(x,y)=(f(x,y),g(x,y))$. An element
$1\in X$ is said to be an identity if $T(1,x)=(x,1),T(x,1)=(1,x)$. The ...

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### Is the variety of algebras that satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation generated by its finite members?

Suppose that $f,g:X^{2}\rightarrow X$, and $T:X^{2}\rightarrow X^{2}$ is the function where $T(x,y)=(f(x,y),g(x,y))$. Then $(X,f,g)$ is said to satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation if $(T\times 1_{X})\...

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### Does the Hurwitz action of the braid group on rank-into-rank embeddings tend to increase the critical points?

An algebraic structure $(X,*)$ is said to be self-distributive if it satisfies the identity $x*(y*z)=(x*y)*(x*z)$.
Suppose that $X$ is a self-distributive algebra. Then the positive braid monoid $B_{...

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votes

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189 views

### Is the *unreduced* Burau representation unitary?

In a 1984 paper, Squier wrote down an explicit Hermitian form $J$ relative to which the reduced Burau representation is unitary. The form is valued in the ring $\mathbb{Z}[s^{\pm 1}]$, where $s^2 = t$ ...

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### semisimplicity of maps in braided vector spaces

Let $V$ be a finite dimensional braided vector space over $\mathbb{C}$.
This means that we have a map $$c_{V,V}:V\otimes V\to V\otimes V$$ which gives us an action of the braid group $B_n$ on $V^{\...

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120 views

### Basis for Annular Skein Algebra

Background/Notation:
Given the Iwahori-Hecke algebra $H_{n}$ (over some ring commutative ring $R$ with identity) with generators $\{T_{1},\ldots T_{n-1}\}$, we know it has basis
$\{T_{w}\}_{w\in S_{...

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### Ordinary differential operators satisfying braid relation?

Let $W$ be the algebra of linear ordinary differential operators with analytic coefficients $C^{\omega}(\mathbb{R})[\partial_x]$ (with multiplication given by composition). Do there exist two elements ...

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343 views

### Formality of the 2nd ordered configuration space of a closed Riemann surface

If $X$ is a smooth manifold, we define its kth ordered configuration space as $$F_kX:=\{(x_1, \ldots,x_k) \; | \; x_i \neq x_j \,\, \mathrm{if} \, \, i \neq j\},$$
in other words, $F_kX = X^k - \Delta,...

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224 views

### Epimorphisms from the genus $2$ surface braid group to finite groups

This question is somehow related to my previous MO question Explicit description of a subgroup of the braid group $\mathsf{B}_2(C_2)$; for the reader convenience, let me write down again the relevant ...

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129 views

### Interactions between pseudoline arrangements and braid groups?

It is common to represent
pseudoline arrangements
as wiring diagrams:
Fig. from: "Hamiltonicity and colorings of arrangement ...

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votes

**1**answer

212 views

### Homotopy type of the semi-simplicial set of symmetric groups

Consider the collection of symmetric groups $\{\Sigma_n\}_{n\geq1}$ as a semi-simplicial set (i.e. a simplicial set without degeneracies) as follows. Consider $i\in\{1,\dots,n+1\}$ and $\pi\in\Sigma_{...

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169 views

### Centralizer of a generator in a braid group

Given a braid group
$$
B_n \simeq
\left\langle
x_1,\ldots,x_{n-1}
\middle|
\begin{array}{l}
x_ix_j = x_jx_i, \;\text{for } |i-j|>1 \\
x_ix_{i+1}x_i = x_{i+1}x_ix_{i+1}
\end{array}
\right\rangle
$$...

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### Question about terminology, and reference request related to the braid operad

Let $\Delta_n$ stand for the Garside element of the braid group $B_n$. It turns out that the family of all Garside elements have the following ``operadic'' property:
$$
\Delta_n\left[ \Delta_{k_1},\...

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219 views

### Recovering information about braids from their decomposition into positive and negative braids

Suppose that $b$ is a braid. Then $b$ can be uniquely written as
$D_{RL}(b)^{-1}N_{RL}(b)$ where $D_{RL}(b),N_{RL}(b)$ are the unique positive braids such that $b=D_{RL}(b)^{-1}N_{RL}(b)$ and where
$...

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363 views

### What is the cohomological dimension of the commutator subgroup of the pure braid group?

I'm interested in computing the cohomological dimension of the commutator subgroup $[P_n,P_n]$ of the pure braid group $P_n$. I wasn't able to find a reference in the literature.
Because $[P_n,P_n]$ ...

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**1**answer

381 views

### Cohomology of braid groups with coefficients in the group ring

Let $\mathbf B_n$ be the braid group on $n$ strings.
What is known about the cohomology of $\mathbf B_n$ with coefficients in its integral group ring: $H^*(\mathbf B_n;\mathbb Z \mathbf B_n)$?

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### The action of the mapping class group of a punctured disk on the boundary at infinity of the universal cover

Let $\mathbb{D}\subset\mathbb{C}$ be the unit disk, and remove $n\geq 2$ of its points $P$. The resulting object will be called the punctured disk $\mathbb{D}_n$ in the following. I am interested in ...

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### Examples of finite algebras that resemble the algebras of elementary embeddings

Let $X$ be a set. Suppose that there exists an element $1\in X$ along with functions $L:X^{2}\rightarrow X,R:X^{2}\rightarrow X$ that satisfy the following identities:
$L(1,x)=x,R(1,x)=1,L(x,1)=1,R(x,...

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### Braid groups representations on infinite dimensional vector spaces

Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional complex vector space. Let $R:V\otimes V\to V\otimes V$ be a solution to the quantum Yang Baxter Equation. In other words: $R$ is invertible and satisfies the ...

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205 views

### Braid groups on topological spaces

The configuration space $C_n(M)$ of $n$ particles in some connected graph $M$ (thought of as the topological realisation of a one-dimensional CW-complex) is
$$M^n \backslash \{ (x_1, \ldots, x_n) \...

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vote

**1**answer

75 views

### Orderable subgroup of the braid groups over the 2-sphere

$$B_{n}(S^2)=\langle \sigma_1,\sigma_2,...\sigma_{n-1}\mid
\sigma_{i}\sigma_{j}=\sigma_{j}\sigma_{i} \text{ if } |i-j|>1;\qquad$$ $$\qquad
\sigma_{i}\sigma_{j}\sigma_{i}=\sigma_{j}\sigma_{i}\sigma_{...

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### Question about the mutation of a cluster seed associated to any word of the braid semigroup

Let $G$ be a semisimple Lie group with the set of positive simple roots $\prod$. Let $\prod^{-}$ be the set of negative simple roots and let $\mathfrak{M}$ be the semigroup freely generated by $\prod$ ...

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### Is the configuration space of ordered triples of distinct points in the four-edge banana graph homotopy equivalent to a surface of genus 13?

If $X$ is a topological space, write $C_n(X)$ for the configuration space of distinct ordered tuples of points in $X$:
$$C_n(X) = \{(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \in X^n \mbox{ so that $i \neq j \implies x_i \...

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193 views

### What is the preimage of a braid in a covering space branched over the braid?

For a knot $K\subset \mathbb{S}^3$, one can construct the covering space branched over that knot by assigning elements of the symmetric group $S_n$ to each arc of the knot. You can find the knot group ...

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110 views

### The singularity type of a non-torus link

It is a well-know result that singular surfaces like
$$x^p+y^q=0$$
(for complex $x$ and $y$) can be associated with $(p,q)$-torus links by considering the intersection of this surface with a small ...

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votes

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157 views

### How to braid a ribbon knot

Is there any algorithm known for braiding ribbon knots? More specifically I need to braid a generic ribbon knot presented as boundary of a ribbon surface= union of two 0-handles and one 1-handle. (...

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203 views

### Is conjugacy problem hard in braid group?

Recently I studied the braid group and conjugacy problem. It is believed that conjugacy problem is hard on braid group. My friend gave me an EXE file, and I use it for solving conjugacy problem, as an ...

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137 views

### How to show the determinant of $B - I$ is zero? [closed]

Let $n \geq 2$ be a positive integer and
$$\beta_i= \left(
\begin{array}{c|c c|c}
I_{i-1} & 0 & 0 & 0\\
\hline
0 & 1-q & q & 0\\
0 & 1 & 0 & 0\\
\hline
...

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144 views

### Plat representations of unlinks

Suppose that $\beta$ is a $2n$-strand braid with plat closure $L$. We can multiply $\beta$ on either side by a member of the Hilden subgroup to get a new braid whose plat closure is still $L$. Or we ...

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### fundamental group of configuration spaces of ordered points on open Riemann surfaces

Let $\bar{X}$ be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g>0$. Let $X$ be $\bar{X}$ minus a finite set of points $\{a_1,\ldots,a_n\}$ ($n\geq 1$). Let $X^{(r)}$ be the configuration space of $r$ ...

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### Does the notion of a critical point extend from set theory to Braid groups?

Let $B_{\infty}$ denote the infinite strand braid group. Let $\text{sh}:B_{\infty}\rightarrow B_{\infty}$ be the homomorphism defined by $\text{sh}(\sigma_{i})=\sigma_{i+1}$ whenever $i\geq 1$. Give $...

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### Is there an analog of Reidemeister's theorem for braids in a surface?

Reidemeister's classical theorem describes the set of links in $\mathbb R^3$ up to isotopy as the set $\{ \textrm{diagrams in } \mathbb R^2\textrm{ with crossings}\}$ modulo certain local relations on ...

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### Is the word problem in the braid group quotient $B_{n}/N$ solvable where $N$ is the normal subgroup generated by conjugates of $\sigma_{i}^{2r}$?

Let $r\geq 2$. Let $N$ be the normal subgroup of $B_{n}$ generated by conjugates of $\sigma_{i}^{2r}$. Then is the word problem in the quotient group $B_{n}/N$ solvable (in polynomial time)? ...

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### Does handle reduction determine braid equivalence in quotients of braid groups?

Let $B_{n}$ denote the $n$-strand braid group. Let $G$ be a group generated by elements $x_{1},...,x_{n-1}$. Let $N$ be the smallest normal subgroup of $B_{n}$ such that the mapping $x_{1}\mapsto\...

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### How quickly can one compute the Hurwitz action of braid groups on finite groups?

Let $G$ be a finite group. Define the Hurwitz action of $B_{n}$ on $G^{n}$ by letting
$(x_{1},...,x_{n})\sigma_{i}=(x_{1},...,x_{i}x_{i+1}x_{i}^{-1},x_{i},x_{i+2},...,x_{n})$. I wonder what algorithms ...

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### Explicit description of a subgroup of the braid group $\mathsf{B}_2(C_2)$

This is related to my previous MathOverflow question Fundamental group of $\mathrm{Sym}^2(C_g)$ minus the diagonal.
Let $C_2$ be a smooth curve of genus $2$ and $X:=\mathrm{Sym}^2(C_2)$ its second ...

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### Krammer representation of an essential braid

A braid element $b$ in the braid Group $B_n$ is an essential braid if it does not have at least one of the generators in it. For example, $b=\sigma_1\sigma_2\sigma_4 \in B_5$ is essential since $\...

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### How close can one get to factoring a braid into twists on strands to the left and twists on the strands to the right?

Let $B_{n}$ denote the $n$-strand braid group. Let $B_{[m,n]}$ denote the subgroup of $B_{n}$ generated by the strands $\sigma_{m},...,\sigma_{n-1}$. If $b$ is a braid, then let $|b|$ denote the ...

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### How to improve this argument for a restriction of the universal $R$-matrix to $U_{q}^{+}(\mathfrak{g})\otimes U_{q}^{0}(\mathfrak{g})$?

The standard universal $R$-matrix for quantum group algebra $U_{q}\left(\mathfrak{g}\right)$, where $\mathfrak{g}$ is of finite type, is
$$
R_{q}=exp\left(q\sum_{i,j}\left(B^{-1}\right)_{ij}H_{i}\...

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### Partially permutative matrices

Let $V$ be a finite dimensional vector space over a field $K$. Then a map
$L:V\otimes V\rightarrow V\otimes V$ is said to satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation if $(L\otimes I)(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)=(I\...

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### Are there any unitary matrices which satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation which are universal for quantum computation?

Let $H$ be a finite dimensional hilbert space. Let $L:H\otimes H\rightarrow H\otimes H$ be a unitary transformation. Then the equation
$$(L\otimes I)(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)=(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)(I\...

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### Do the normal forms for braid groups really conceal information about better than randomly applying the braid relations?

In braid based cryptography, one typically wants to conceal the way a certain braid $b$ has been obtained. One therefore puts $b$ into some normal form. Since every braid has a unique normal form, the ...

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### Are braid groups conjugacy separable?

I would like to re-ask a question that was raised in the comments here:
Normal subgroups of braid groups
Namely, a group $G$ is called conjugacy separable, if it holds that for every two elements $x,...

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### Cohomology of a configuration space of points on $\mathbb C^\times$ with an additional restriction

Let $Conf_{1,n}^3$ be the configuration space of collections of $n$ distinct numbered points on the annulus $\mathbb C^\times$ with an imposed restriction: for any $r\in \mathbb R^+$ the circle $\...

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**1**answer

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### A three-rope tangle that is equal to its mirror tangle

In the same way that a figure-eight knot is equal (after a suitable rotation) to its mirror knot, I am looking for simple tangles made of three ropes that are equal to their mirror tangle.
The ...

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votes

**1**answer

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### Braid group: Can a left-twist increase the number of right twists?

Disclaimer: This question was first posted on math.se without any answer.
This is something that naturally occurs in my research, but I am no expert on this - it feels like a natural question so I am ...

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### How long does it take for the action of the braid monoids on Laver tables to become trivial?

Let $A_{n}$ denote the classical Laver table of cardinality $2^{n}$.
Let $B_{n}^{*}$ denote the positive (including the identity) braid monoid on $n$ elements generated by $\sigma_{1},...,\sigma_{n}$....

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### coefficient of homology of configuration spaces over real projective spaces

In the slides Characteristic Classes of Surface Bundles
and Configuration Spaces, Miguel A. Xicot'encatl, page 38, what is the coefficient of the following homology?
Could the coefficient be an ...