# Questions tagged [bounded-arithmetic]

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### What is the consistency strength of this theory?

Language: first-order logic
Primitives: $=, S, \in $ (the first denotes identity, the second denotes “is a successor of”, and the third denotes membership relation).
Axioms: those of identity ...

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### Upper bound on the spectral radius of summation of two matrices one symmetric one diagonal

I am looking for an upper bound for the largest absolute value of eigenvalues of the summation of two matrices $\underset{i}\max{|λi(A+K)|}$ where $A$ is symmetric with real nonnegative eigenvalues ...

**6**

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### Provability in $S^1_2$

What are some examples of natural true statements of the form $∀n φ(n)$ ($φ$ is a polynomial time computation/test) that are unprovable in $S^1_2$?
Examples may be unconditional or dependent on ...

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### Does Bounded Arithmetic, $I\Delta_0$, prove the Recursion Theorem?

Compare my question Does Robinson Arithmetic already entail the Recursion Theorem. I would find it desirable and interesting if $I\Delta_0$ could be extended with a comprehension principle CP stating ...

**6**

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### Logical complexity of hard functions conjectures

Let $\phi_1$ and $\phi_2$ be the following statements:
$\phi_1:$ There is a function $f:\{0,1\}^*\to\{0,1\}$ computable in $E$ that has circuit complexity $2^{\Omega(n)}$.
$\phi_2:$ There is a ...

**3**

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### Collapsing the Intuitionistic Bounded Arithmetics Hierarchy

Let $iT$ be the intuitionistic first order theory with non-logical axioms of classical first order theory $T$.
Theorem1. If $\mathsf{T^i_2}\vdash \mathsf{T_2}$, then $\mathsf{T^i_2}$ proves that ...

**3**

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**1**answer

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### On subtheories of $\mathsf{T_2+EXP}$

By famous KPT theorem, if $\mathsf{T^i_2}\vdash \mathsf{T^j_2}$ for some $0<i<j$, then the polynomial hierarchy collapses. So it seems this bounded arithmetic hierarchy does not collapse. Also, ...

**2**

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### Bounded Arithmetic and Counting

Let $\mathcal{L}=\{0,S,+,\cdot,=,<,X,R,S\}$ be the language of arithmetic with three additional predicate symbols $X(v)$, $R(v,u)$ and $S(v,u)$.
Let $\phi(x),\psi(x,y)$ and $\eta(x,y)$ be formulas ...

**2**

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### $P=NP$ and provability of family of propositional formulas

Let $\mathcal{L}'=\{+,\cdot,0,S,=,<,||,\#,R\}$ be the lanugage of bounded arithmetic with a $k$-ary relation $R$.
For every bounded sentence $\phi({\bf\bar{n}})$ in $\mathcal{L}'$ define ...

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### Collapsing the Linear Time Hierarchy and finite axiomatizability of bounded arithmetic

It is well known that if ${\bf T_2}$ (or $I\Delta_0+\Omega_1$) is finitely axiomatizable, then the Polynomial Hierarchy collapses.
Q. Is there any similar relation between $I\Delta_0$ and Linear ...

**3**

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### Equational theory for resolution proof system

Is there any equational theory $T$ like $PV$ with following properties:
If $T\vdash f=g$ for terms $f$ and $g$, translation of $f=g$ to propositional formulas has polynomial resolution proof.(like $...

**10**

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**2**answers

473 views

### Bounded Arithmetic vs Complexity Theory

In this post, when I talk about bounded arithmetic theories,
I mean the theories of arithmetic according to "Logical Foundations of Proof Complexity", which capture the complexity classes between $AC^...

**4**

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**1**answer

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### Weak Bounded Arithmetics

Let $\Sigma^b_i$ and $\Pi^b_i$ formulas be bounded formulas defined by Buss in language of $L_b$. $PIND(\phi(x))$ is the formula:
$$\phi(0)\land \forall x(\phi(\left \lfloor \frac{x}{2} \right \...

**12**

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**1**answer

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### Intutionistic Robinson Arithmetic

By Friedman translation $HA$ and $PA$ prove the same $\Pi_2$ formulas.
Is it true for Intutionistic Robinson arithmetic(Robinson axioms with intutionistic logic) and classic Robinson arithmetic?
...

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### models of $I\exists^+_1$

$\phi$ is a $\exists^+_1$ formula iff it is in language of arithmetic and does not have $\forall$,$\neg$ and $\rightarrow$, therefore $I\exists^+_1$ is theory of $Q$+induction axioms for $\exists^+_1$ ...

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### Does every model of $I\Delta_0$ has an end extension to a model of $I\Delta_0+\Omega_1$?

Does every model of $I\Delta_0$ has an end extension to a model of $I\Delta_0+\Omega_1$?
In End extensions of models of linearly bounded arithmetic paper the author said this problem is open. I want ...

**8**

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### Kripke models of $HA$

Let $K$ be a kripke model and $k$ be one of its node, then $\mathcal{M}_k$ is classical structure of $k$.
What is the strongest theory of arithmetic like $T$ such that for
every kripke model $K\...

**4**

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**3**answers

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### End Extension models of $I\Delta_0$

Recently I'm thinking about question below, but I can not prove or disprove it.
Is it true that for every model $M\models I\Delta_0$ there exists a
model $M'\models PA$ such that $M'$ is end ...

**9**

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### Model-theoretic accounts of feasibility in bounded arithmetic and related systems

Various weak theories of arithmetic have been partially motivated by a concern with numbers (or functions/proofs) that are feasible. This concern is sometimes connected to an interest in strictly ...

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### Unboundedness of primes in bounded arithmetic

Wilkie's well known question asks whether $I\Delta_{0}$ proves the unboundedness of primes. We know that by adding a sentence to $I\Delta_{0}$ which says "the exponential function is total", it is ...

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### Is there exponentiation in “sufficiently large” models of $I\Delta_{0}$?

Let $L_{E}$ be the language of discretely ordered rings together with an extra predicate symbol $E$. The system $A$ consists of the axioms of $I\Delta_{0}$ (basic arithmetic plus induction for bounded ...