# Questions tagged [arithmetic-geometry]

Diophantine equations, elliptic curves, Mordell conjecture, Arakelov theory, Iwasawa theory, Mochizuki theory.

**127**

votes

**1**answer

14k views

### What is a Frobenioid?

Since there will be a long digression in a moment, let me start by reassuring you that my intention really is to ask the question in the title.
Recently, there has been a flurry of new discussion ...

**108**

votes

**4**answers

42k views

### What are “perfectoid spaces”?

This talk is about a theory of "perfectoid spaces", which "compares objects in characteristic p with objects in characteristic 0". What are those spaces, where can one read about them?
Edit: A bit ...

**76**

votes

**9**answers

10k views

### Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points.
I am interested to know why Mordell and ...

**71**

votes

**1**answer

11k views

### What is an étale theta function?

Let me start out by urging you to take seriously that whatever I write about the papers surrounding IUTT really are questions. If you would like to use it as a guide to the mathematics in any way, ...

**55**

votes

**11**answers

6k views

### Why certain diophantine equations are interesting (and others are not) ?

It is quite clear why certain differential equations, among the jungle of possible diff equations that is possible to conceive, are studied: some come from physical problems, or from "spontaneous" ...

**53**

votes

**5**answers

16k views

### Have there been any updates on Mochizuki's proposed proof of the abc conjecture?

In August 2012, a proof of the abc conjecture was proposed by Shinichi Mochizuki. However, the proof was based on a "Inter-universal Teichmüller theory" which Mochizuki himself pioneered. It was known ...

**52**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Questions about analogy between Spec Z and 3-manifolds

I'm not sure if the questions make sense:
Conc. primes as knots and Spec Z as 3-manifold - fits that to the Poincare conjecture? Topologists view 3-manifolds as Kirby-equivalence classes of framed ...

**51**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### What were the main ideas and gaps in Yoichi Miyaoka's attempted proof (1988) of Fermat's Last Theorem?

Out of sheer curiosity I have been reading Stewert and Tall's "Algebraic Number Theory and Fermat's Last Theorem" (2001). As it contains various bits of history, I found out to my own shame that I was ...

**49**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### IMO 2017/6 via arithmetic geometry

The (very nice) final problem of IMO 2017 asked contestants to show:
If $S$ is a finite set of lattice points $(x,y)$ with $\gcd(x,y)=1$, then there is a nonconstant homogeneous polyonmial $f \in \...

**48**

votes

**2**answers

8k views

### What is a good roadmap for learning Shimura curves?

I am interested in learning about Shimura curves. Unlike most of the people who post reference requests however (see this question for example), my problem is not sorting through an abundance of books ...

**46**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### current status of crystalline cohomology?

The great references given on Ilya's question make me wonder about the current status of the many conjectures and open questions in Illusie's survey from 1994 on crystalline cohomology. Obviously (...

**44**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### Intuition for the last step in Serre's proof of the three-squares theorem

Serre's A Course in Arithmetic gives essentially the following proof of the three-squares theorem, which says that an integer $a$ is the sum of three squares if and only if it is not of the form $4^m (...

**44**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What is Prismatic cohomology?

Prismatic cohomology is a new theory developed by Bhatt and Scholze; see, for instance, these course notes. For the sake of the community, it would be great if the following question is discussed in ...

**42**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Fermat's last theorem over larger fields

Fermat's last theorem implies that the number of solutions of $x^5 + y^5 = 1$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ is finite.
Is the number of solutions of $x^5 + y^5 = 1$ over $\mathbb{Q}^{\text{ab}}$ finite?
Here $\...

**40**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Langlands in dimension 2: the Yoshida conjecture

Background:
One prominent part of the Langlands program is the conjecture that
all motives are automorphic.
It is of interest to consider special cases that are more precise, if less
sweeping. ...

**39**

votes

**1**answer

16k views

### What is inter-universal geometry?

I wonder what Mochizuki's inter-universal geometry and his generalisation of anabelian geometry is, e.g. why the ABC-conjecture involves nested inclusions of sets as hinted in the slides, or why such ...

**38**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What are the potential applications of perfectoid spaces to homotopy theory?

This year's Arizona Winter School was on perfectoid spaces, and there were quite a few homotopy theorists in the audience. I'd like to get a "big list" of reasons homotopy theorists might care about ...

**37**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### A mysterious connection between Ramanujan-type formulas for $1/\pi^k$ and hypergeometric motives

The question below is the follow-up of this question on MathOverflow.
Motivation: As is stated in the former question, those identities(formula (35)-(44)) of $1/\pi$ attributed to Ramanujan are ...

**36**

votes

**8**answers

15k views

### Roadmap for studying arithmetic geometry

I have read Hartshorne's Algebraic Geometry from chapter 1 to chapter 4, so I'd like to find some suggestions about the next step to study arithmetic geometry.
I want to know how to use scheme ...

**36**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Why are Green functions involved in intersection theory?

I've been learning Arakelov geometry on surfaces for a while. Formally I've understood how things work, but I'm still missing a big picture.
Summary:
Let $X$ be an arithmetic surface over $\...

**35**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### What should I read before reading about Arakelov theory?

I tried reading about Arakelov theory before, but I could never get very far. It seems that this theory draws its motivation from geometric ideas that I'm not very familiar with.
What should I read ...

**33**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Perfectoid universal covers

It is often said, with varying degrees of rigor or enthusiasm, that every rigid space (say over $\mathbb{C}_p$) has a pro-etale cover which is 'topologically trivial' in some sense. For example, this ...

**32**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Arithmetic geometry examples

(This is inspired by Algebraic geometry examples.)
I want to collect here (counter)examples in arithmetic geometry.
Curves violating the Hasse principle: The Selmer curve $3X^3 + 4Y^3 + 5Z^3 = 0$. ...

**32**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is the group of integer points on a finite-type group scheme over Z finitely presented?

Let $G$ be a group scheme of finite type over $\mathbf{Z}$. Must $G(\mathbf{Z})$ be finitely presented?
(The question is inspired by a not yet successful attempt to answer a question of Brian Conrad....

**31**

votes

**2**answers

733 views

### The Sylvester-Gallai theorem over $p$-adic fields

The famous Sylvester-Gallai theorem states that for any finite set $X$ of points in the plane $\mathbf{R}^2$, not all on a line, there is a line passing through exactly two points of $X$.
What ...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### $p$-adic Hodge Theory for rigid spaces, after P. Scholze

I was going over P. Scholze's paper on $p$-adic Hodge Theory for rigid analytic varieties.
This question is around the "Poincaré Lemma" in the paper.
Throughout, let $X$ be a proper smooth rigid ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Do all curves have Néron models

Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over a number field $K$. Assume that $g\geq 2$.
Does there exist a Néron model $\mathcal X$ for $X$ over $O_K$?
By a Néron model, I mean ...

**29**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### What was achieved on IUT summit, RIMS workshop? [closed]

I would like to know what was achieved in the workshop towards the verification of abc conjecture's proof and the advance of understanding of IUT in general.
A comment from a participant:
C ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How to visualize Dirichlet’s unit theorem?

As the question title asks for, how do others "visualize" Dirichlet’s unit theorem? I just think of it as a result in algebraic number theory and not one in algebraic geometry. Bonus points for ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### Intuition behind the Eichler-Shimura relation?

The modular curve $X_0(N)$ has good reduction at all primes $p$ not dividing $N$. At such a prime, the Eichler-Shimura relation expresses the Hecke operator $T_p$ (as an element of the ring of ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

7k views

### Fontaine-Mazur for GL_1

For any number field $K$, the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture predicts that any potentially semistable $p$-adic representation of the absolute Galois group $G_K$ of $K$ that is almost everywhere unramified ...

**27**

votes

**1**answer

8k views

### Why is Faltings' “almost purity theorem” a purity theorem?

My understanding of purity theorems is that they come in several flavors:
1) Those of the form "this Galois representation is pure, i.e. the eigenvalues of $Frob_p$ are algebraic numbers all of whose ...

**27**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Degeneration of the Hodge spectral sequence

Let $f\colon X \to S$ be a smooth proper morphism of schemes. If $S$ is of characteristic zero (i.e., $S$ is a $\mathbb Q$-scheme), then Deligne has shown:
$R^af_*\Omega^b_{X/S}$ is locally free for ...

**26**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Does the moduli space of smooth curves of genus g contain an elliptic curve

Let $M_g$ be the moduli space of smooth projective geometrically connected curves over a field $k$ with $g\geq 2$. Note that $M_g$ is not complete.
Does $M_g$ contain an elliptic curve?
The answer ...

**26**

votes

**2**answers

8k views

### A road to inter-universal Teichmuller theory

What would be a study path for someone in the level of Hartshorne's Algebraic Geometry to understand and study inter-universal Teichmuller (IUT) theory? I know that it heavily relies on anabelian ...

**26**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Over which fields does the Mordell-Weil theorem hold?

According to a well-known theorem of Mordell, the group of rational points $E(\mathbf{Q})$ of an elliptic curve $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is finitely generated. Weil generalized this theorem to abelian varieties ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

819 views

### Analogies between classical geometry on complex surfaces and Arakelov geometry

This is my first question on this wonderful site. The following question about Arakelov geometry is gonna be quite long and wide; to be clear one of that kind of questions that are usually ignored. ...

**26**

votes

**2**answers

850 views

### On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces

History of the Formula: In their famous paper "On Determinants of Laplacians on Riemann Surfaces" (1986), D'Hoker and Phong computed the determinant of the Laplacian $\Delta_n^+$ on the space $T^n$ of ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Why does the Section Conjecture exclude curves of genus 1?

Let $X$ be an integral proper normal curve over a (perfect) field $F$, of genus $\geq 2$. One variant of Grothendieck's "section conjecture" states that the sections $G_F \rightarrow \pi_1(X)$ of the ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Are most curves over Q pointless?

Fresh out of the arXiv press is the remarkable result of Manjul Bhargava saying that most hyperelliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ have no rational points. Don Zagier suggests the paraphrase : Most ...

**24**

votes

**3**answers

861 views

### Consequences of Shafarevich conjecture

The Shafarevich conjecture states that the Galois group $\mathrm{Gal}({\overline{\mathbf{Q}}/\mathbf{Q}^{ab}})$ is a free profinite group, where $\mathbf{Q}^{ab}$ is the maximal abelian extension of $\...

**23**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Relatively concise English expositions of the proofs of the various Weil conjectures

Where can I find relatively concise (i.e. not excessively wordy and waxing poetic about history and intuitions and such, doesn't spend an eternity carefully developing various parts of the theory of ...

**23**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Crux of Dwork's proof of rationality of the zeta function?

As the question title suggests, what is the crux of Dwork's proof of the rationality of the zeta function? What is the intuition behind the proof, what are the key steps that the proof boils down to?

**22**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Have people successfully worked with the full ring of diferential operators in characteristic p?

This question is inspired by an earlier one about the possibility of using the full ring of differential operators on a flag variety to develop a theory of localization in characteristic $p$. (Here ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

883 views

### Is hyperelliptic cryptography “practical”?

Previosly my impression on this subject was that hyperelliptic cryptography systems (as well as other possible cryptosystems based on abelian varieties of dimension $>1$) have no advantages over ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### When is “independence of l” known?

My question is for which varieties over local fields is "independence of l" known for
etale cohomology. Say $X/{\mathbb Q}_p$ is a complete non-singular variety and $W_l$ is the (complex) Weil-...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

943 views

### Why it is difficult to define cohomology groups in Arakelov theory?

I have been puzzled by the following Faltings' remark in his paper Calculus on arithemetic surfaces (page 394) for a few months. He says:
If $D$ is a divisor on $X$, we would like to define a ...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

717 views

### Smooth proper schemes over Z with points everywhere locally

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question.
Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme $X\to\operatorname{...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### unboundedness of number of integral points on elliptic curves?

If $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is an elliptic curve and we put it into minimal Weierstrass form, we can count how many integral points it has. A theorem of Siegel tells us that this number $n(E)$ is finite, and ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

495 views

### What automorphic forms are expected to occur in the zeta function of moduli space of curves?

Assume $g \geq 1$ and $n \geq 0$, the moduli stack ${\mathcal {M}}_{g,n}$ classifies families of smooth projective curves of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points , together with their isomorphisms. It has ...