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Questions tagged [additive-combinatorics]

Questions on the subject additive combinatorics, also known as arithmetic combinatorics, such as questions on: additive bases, sum sets, inverse sum set theorems, sets with small doubling, Sidon sets, Szemerédi's theorem and its ramifications, Gowers uniformity norms, etc. Often combined with the top-level tags nt.number-theory or co.combinatorics. Some additional tags are available for further specialization, including the tags sumsets and sidon-sets.

23
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657 views

Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief:   When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that $$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$ gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...
23
votes
0answers
625 views

probability of zero subset sum

Almost 17 years ago, I asked the following question on USENET, motivated by a method in numerology (I kid you not). Pick integers $n \ge 2$, $k \ge 1$. Toss $n$ $k$-sided dice. The sides of each die ...
13
votes
0answers
382 views

How large must $A$ be if $\{1, \ldots, N\} \subseteq A-A$?

Given a positive integer $N$, what is the size of the smallest set of integers $A$ such that, for any integer $1 \leq k \leq N$, we can find two integers $x, y \in A$ such that $x - y = k$? (An ...
13
votes
0answers
414 views

Correlation of Fourier transforms of characteristic functions

Let $A$ and $B$ ($A\subset B$) be subsets of a finite abelian group $G$. (For the sake of argument, you can take $G$ to be $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ for large $p$, say.) Write $1_S$ for the ...
12
votes
0answers
272 views

Escaping from a centralizer

Let $G = Sym(n)$, $n$ even. Let $H<G$ be the stabilizer of the partition $\{\{1,2\},\{3,4\},\dotsc,\{n-1,n\}\}$, or, what is the same, the centralizer of $(1\;2) \dotsc (n-1\; n)$. By Stirling's ...
11
votes
0answers
684 views

What are the limits of the Erdős-Rankin method for covering intervals by arithmetic progressions?

To construct gaps between primes which are marginally larger than average, Erdős and Rankin covered an interval $[1,y]$ with arithmetic progressions with prime differences. A nice short exposition is ...
9
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0answers
260 views

An abstract zero-sum problem

I would like to know whether the problem described below has appeared in the literature and/or whether similar questions have been studied. I would be very happy to find some references or, if none ...
9
votes
0answers
347 views

A characterization of quadratics similar to an inverse sieve problem

Suppose $\mathscr{A} \subset \mathbb{N}$ enjoys for all large enough cutoffs $X$ the following properties: $|\mathscr{A} \cap [1,X]| > \sqrt{X}/10$; and the discriminant $\prod_{\alpha \neq \beta}|...
9
votes
0answers
369 views

Partition regularity in the squares

A linear equation $c_1x_1 + \cdots + c_sx_s = 0$ is partition regular if for every partition of the natural numbers into colour classes $A_1, \ldots, A_r$, there is a solution to the equation in which ...
9
votes
0answers
683 views

Cliques in the Paley graph and a problem of Sarkozy

The following question is motivated by pure curiosity; it is not a part of any research project and I do not have any applications. The question comes as an interpolation between two notoriously ...
8
votes
0answers
290 views

What is intuition behind sets with more sums than differences?

There exist finite sets $A$ in, say, $\mathbb{Z}$, such that $|A+A|>|A-A|$. The minimal such set contains 8 elements and consists of, say, 0, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 14. How should I find such an ...
8
votes
0answers
178 views

Sets of natural numbers which are almost closed under addition

I am interested in a classification of sets $A \subseteq \mathbb{N}$ such that for all $k \in A$, $d( A+k \cap \mathbb{N} \setminus A) = 0$ where $d$ is the asymptotic density and $A+k = \{n \in \...
8
votes
0answers
267 views

A strong sum-product “for translates” in finite fields

In the course of some recent research, I've sketched out a proof of the following result. My basis question is: is the result interesting? Proposition There exists an absolute constant $c$ such ...
8
votes
0answers
179 views

Erdös-Fuchs Theorem for multivariate linear forms

Let $A$ be an infinite set of positive integers, and denote by $r(n)$ the number of solutions to the equation $a+a'=n$, with $a,\, a' \in A$. It is not very difficult to show that if $r(n) > 0$ ...
8
votes
0answers
293 views

Distribution of subset-sums

Let $A$ be a set of $n$ integers uniformly distributed in $\{0,\dots,N-1\}$. Let $S$ be the set of subset-sums modulo $N$ of $A$. Let $f_{n,N}(k)$ be the probability that $|S|=k$. Is there an ...
7
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0answers
153 views

Cyclic and prime factorizations of finite groups

A tuple $(A_1,\dots,A_n)$ of subsets of a finite group $G$ is called a factorization of $G$ if $G=A_1\cdots A_n$ and $|A_1|\cdots|A_n|=G$. In Cryptology factorizations of groups are known as ...
7
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0answers
207 views

Is every integer $n>1$ the sum of two squares and two central binomial coefficients?

Those integers $\binom{2n}n\ (n=0,1,2,\ldots)$ are called central binomial coefficients. By Stirling's formula, $$\binom{2n}n\sim \frac{4^n}{\sqrt{n\pi}}\ \ \ \ (n\to+\infty).$$ Of course, the ...
7
votes
0answers
180 views

Distribution of trivial subset sums

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $n$ integers picked independently, uniformly at random from $[-L, L].$ Let $z(S)$ be the number of subsets of $S$ which sum to zero. The question is: what is the ...
7
votes
0answers
110 views

Why have most maximal cliques of Paley graphs odd size?

I ask this question mainly by curiosity. See here for definitions and a plot of the clique numbers of the Paley graphs for the primes $p\equiv 1 \pmod 4$ up to $10000$. Is there an explanation ...
6
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0answers
203 views

Legendre's three-square theorem and squared norm of integer matrices

Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of non-negative integers. Let $E_n$ be the set of integers which are the sum of $n$ squares. Let $F_n$ be the set of integers of the form $\Vert A \Vert^2$ with $A \in M_n(...
6
votes
0answers
180 views

A formula for Frobenius number of certain numerical semigroups

The old formula for the Frobenius number of a numerical semigroup generated by two elements can be stated as follows: assume $\gcd\{a+1,b+1\}=1$, then the Frobenius number of $S= \left<a+1,b+1\...
6
votes
0answers
158 views

Growth in a vector space

I am interested in "growth" in finite vector spaces. I have been wondering about the veracity of the following statement: Statement: For every $\varepsilon>0$ there exists $b\in\mathbb{Z}^+$ ...
6
votes
0answers
141 views

Large cubes in sum/difference sets

If $A$ is a subset of an abelian group with $|A+A|\leq K|A|$ then one can show that $A$ contains a large cube of size depending on $K$. Here a cube is a set of the form $$C=\{a_0+\sum_{i=1}^d e_ia_i:...
6
votes
0answers
200 views

Other applications of the 'increment' approach

I would like to hear about other instances of the so-called 'increments' approach, first used by Roth to prove that a subset of $\mathbb{N}$ of positive upper density contained infinitely many ...
6
votes
0answers
583 views

Largest set of integers without 3-term arithmetic progressions mod $n$

I am interested in a sharp bound on the largest possible size $e_3({\boldsymbol{Z}_n})$ of a subset $S \subset \boldsymbol{Z}_n$ such that for any three distinct elements $a, b, c \in S$ we have $a+b \...
6
votes
0answers
392 views

Small maximal sets with no 3-AP?

Everyone knows about the problem of finding the largest set in 1,2,...,N which contains no arithmetic progression of length 3.....what happens if we look at the set which is the smallest maximal ...
6
votes
0answers
687 views

Expectation of Gowers norm

This was a problem that came up during a course on Analytic Combinatorics that I had taken this semester. Here's the problem: Let $\mathbf{F}$ be the set of boolean functions, $f: \mathbb{F}_2^n \...
5
votes
0answers
132 views

Is every integer $n>1$ the sum of two triangular numbers and two powers of $5$?

Recall that the triangular numbers are those integers $$T_n=n(n+1)/2\ \ \ (n=0,1,2,\ldots).$$ In 1796 Gauss proved that each $n\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ is the sum of three triangular numbers, ...
5
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0answers
102 views

$m$-thick sets with small $n$-fold sumsets in finite cyclic groups

Problem. Is it true that for every positive integers $n,m$ there exists a subset $A_{n,m}$ of a finite cyclic group $G$ having the following two properties: $(\Sigma_n)$ the $n$-fold sum $A_{n,m}^{+...
5
votes
0answers
590 views

Increasing sequences in polynomial progressions modulo p

In a random permutation on $n$ elements one expects the largest increasing and decreasing sequences to have size $(2+o(1))\sqrt{n}$. Is it known if this same property holds in sequences given by ...
5
votes
0answers
75 views

Some questions about the Lévy monoid of certain densities

Let $\bf H$ be a set, $f: \mathcal P({\bf H}) \rightharpoonup \bf R$ a partial function, and $\mathcal{D}$ the domain of $f$. Next, denote by $\mathcal M(f)$ the set of all (total) functions $\theta: ...
5
votes
0answers
220 views

The sum of all the elements of every non empty subset of $A$ is not a multiple of $n$

Let $N=\{1,2,\ldots ,n\},n>1$. We wish to construct a set $A\subseteq N$ with the property: The sum of all the elements of every non empty subset of $A$ is not a multiple of $n$. Question: ...
4
votes
0answers
154 views

Lower bound for some sums of roots of unity

Let $n$ be a positive integer (assume $n$ is prime for simplicity), and let $x_k = \pm1$, for $k = 0,1,2,..., n-1$. Let $\rho$ be an $n-$th primitive root of unity, I am interested in a lower bound ...
4
votes
0answers
139 views

Linear combination of characters

For each $i \in \mathbb{N}$, let $G_{i}$ be a finite abelian group and $\widehat{G_{i}}$ the $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$-valued character group of $G_{i}$. Suppose that $|G_{i}| \rightarrow \infty$ as $i \...
4
votes
0answers
143 views

On point sets with many distinct distances

Let $P$ be a set of $n$ points in the plane and let $D$ be the set of Euclidean distances determined by the pairs of points in $P$. Suppose that for each $d \in D$ there are at most $5$ (unordered) ...
4
votes
0answers
91 views

Two variants of the Littlewood-Offord theorem

I found two different looking things being called the Littlewood-Offord theorem, If $\vec{a} \in \mathbb{R}^k \setminus 0$ and $t \in \mathbb{R}$ then there are $O(\frac{2^k}{\sqrt{k}})$ points $x \...
4
votes
0answers
431 views

An inequality from Green-Tao “The primes contain arbitrary long arithmetic progressions”

I have been reading "The primes contain arbitrary long arithmetic progressions" by Green and Tao (The version on the ArXiv: https://arxiv.org/pdf/math/0404188v6.pdf) going through the details and ...
4
votes
0answers
117 views

Negative values of cosine sums

Consider real numbers $x_1, \dots, x_M$ such that $$\sum_{i=1}^{M} \frac{\cos(x_i t^2)}{e^{(x_it)^2}} \le -\frac{1}{2}, $$ for all $L< t <L^A,$ where L is a large number. What lower bound ...
4
votes
0answers
110 views

Restricted addition analogue of Freiman's $(3n-4)$-theorem

There is a well-known theorem of Freiman saying that if $A$ is a finite set of integers with $|2A| \le 3|A|-4$, then $A$ is contained in an arithmetic progression with at most $|2A|-|A|+1$ terms. Is ...
4
votes
0answers
337 views

The original proof of Szemerédi's Theorem

Nowadays there are plenty of different proofs of the celebrated Szemerédi's Theorem but for historical reasons I would like to read and understand the original proof. The proof is very tricky and, for ...
4
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0answers
113 views

Sparsifiers for 3-term arithmetic progressions

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group of odd order, let $D\subseteq G$, and $\epsilon \in (0,1)$. For $S\subseteq G$ define $$ \Lambda(S) = \frac{1}{|S||G|} \sum_{s\in S}\sum_{g\in G} 1_S(s)1_S(s+g)1_S(s+...
4
votes
0answers
162 views

Reduction argument from a general vertex set V(G) to a prime power in Prof. Keevash's proof on the Existence of Designs

The proof flow of the paper "On the Existence of Designs" by Prof. Keevash as I understand it is the following: -- Reduction from the general case to $V = \mathbb{F}_{p^a}$ (Lemma 6.3) -- Covering ...
4
votes
0answers
182 views

Subgroup cliques in the Paley graph

It is a famous open problem to estimate non-trivially, for a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod 4$, the largest size of a subset $A\subset{\mathbb F}_p$ such that the difference of any two elements of $A$ is a ...
4
votes
0answers
75 views

Distribution of the evaluation (at a non-trivial root of -1) of polynomials with small coefficients

When we studied some cryptographic protocol, we came accross the following problem, which seems linked to the uniformity of the residues of small multiplicative subgroups of $\mathbb{F}_q$. Problem ...
4
votes
0answers
209 views

“Pseudo-random” subsets of additive bases

We say that a subset $B \subset \mathbb{N}$ is an (asymptotic) additive basis of order $k$ if the set $kB = B + \cdots + B = \mathbb{N} \setminus C$, where $C$ is a finite set of positive integers. ...
4
votes
0answers
151 views

Bounds on difference sets of relatively dense A \subseteq {1, …, n}

Let $A \subseteq \{1, \dots, n\}$ and let $A-A = \{a-b | a,b \in A\}$. Is it possible to obtain a general bound of the form $|A - A| = O(n^\beta)$ for some $\beta < 1$? If not, can something like ...
4
votes
0answers
356 views

A question about Erdos thin bases

Let $B \subset \mathbb{N}$ be an additive basis of order $h$. Define $r_{B,h}(n)$ to be the number of ways $n$ can be written as a sum of $h$ elements of $B$. In particular, $B$ is a basis of order $h$...
3
votes
0answers
101 views

Inequalities about tripling and doubling sumsets

Let $A$ be a set of vectors in $\mathbb Z^d$ who $\mathbb R$-span is the whole $\mathbb R^d$. Let $s_i(A)$ denote the size of $A+A+\dots A$ ($i$ times). I am interested in the following: Question 1:...
3
votes
0answers
230 views

A new combinatorial problem for finite groups

In a recent preprint arXiv:1811.10503, I proved that if $a_1,\ldots,a_n$ are distinct elements of a torsion-free additive abelian group $G$, then there is a permutation $\pi\in S_n$ such that all ...
3
votes
0answers
154 views

A conjectural lower bound for $|\{\sum_{k=1}^nka_k:\ a_1,\ldots,a_n\ \text{are distinct elements of }\ A\}|$

Motivated by Question 315568 of mine, I'm interested in the set $$S(n):=\bigg\{\sum_{k=1}^n k\pi(k):\ \pi\in S_n\bigg\}.$$ It is easy to see that $$S(1)=\{1\},\ S(2)=\{4,5\}\ \text{and}\ S(3)=\{10,...