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Questions tagged [ac.commutative-algebra]

Commutative rings, modules, ideals, homological algebra, computational aspects, invariant theory, connections to algebraic geometry and combinatorics.

92
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5answers
8k views

What do epimorphisms of (commutative) rings look like?

(Background: In any category, an epimorphism is a morphism $f:X\to Y$ which is "surjective" in the following sense: for any two morphisms $g,h:Y\to Z$, if $g\circ f=h\circ f$, then $g=h$. Roughly, "...
54
votes
5answers
7k views

Is there a “geometric” intuition underlying the notion of normal varieties?

I first got concious of the notion of normal varieties around 3 years ago and despite the fact that by now I can manipulate with it a bit, this notion still puzzles me a lot. One thing that strikes me ...
20
votes
12answers
3k views

Homological Algebra for Commutative Monoids?

Homological algebra for abelian groups is a standard tool in many fields of mathematics. How much carries over to the setting of commutative monoids (with unit)? It seems like there is a notion of ...
21
votes
4answers
2k views

Does Smith normal form imply PID?

Let $R$ be a nonzero commutative ring with $1$, such that all finite matrices over $R$ have a Smith normal form. Does it follow that $R$ is a principal ideal domain? If this fails, suppose we ...
15
votes
1answer
762 views

Are there non-reflexive modules isomorphic to their bi-dual?

Let $M$ be an $R$-module. We say that $M$ is reflexive if the natural map $M\rightarrow M^{**}$ is an isomorphism. I'd like to know if there exists a module isomorphic to its bi-dual but not ...
6
votes
1answer
210 views

If $f,g \in D[x,y]$ are algebraically dependent over $D$, then $f,g \in D[h]$ for some $h\in D[x,y]$?

This question asks: If $f,g \in k[x,y]$ are two algebraically dependent polynomials over an arbitrary field $k$, is it true that there exists a polynomial $h \in k[x,y]$ such that $f,g \in k[h]$, ...
6
votes
1answer
223 views

Any two bivariate algebraically dependent polynomials are always in the same ring generated by some bivariate polynomial?

If $f(x,y)$ and $g(x,y)$ are two algebraically dependent polynomials over some field $k$, is it true that there exists a bivariate polynomial $p(x,y)$ such that both $f(x,y)$ and $g(x,y)$ are in the ...
87
votes
2answers
7k views

How would you solve this tantalizing Halmos problem?

$1-ab$ invertible $\implies$ $1-ba$ invertible has a slick power series "proof" as below, where Halmos asks for an explanation of why this tantalizing derivation succeeds. Do you know one? Geometric ...
55
votes
9answers
15k views

Irreducibility of polynomials in two variables

Let $k$ be a field. I am interested in sufficient criteria for $f \in k[x,y]$ to be irreducible. An example is Theorem A of this paper. Does anyone know of similar results in the same vein? How about ...
29
votes
6answers
6k views

Algebraic stacks from scratch [closed]

I have a pretty good understanding of stacks, sheaves, descent, Grothendieck topologies, and I have a decent understanding of commutative algebra (I know enough about smooth, unramified, étale, and ...
21
votes
5answers
3k views

Why does the (S2) property of a ring correspond to the Hartogs phenomenon?

Hartogs Theorem says every function whose undefined locus is of codim 2 can be extend to the whole domain. I saw people saying this corresponds to the (S2) property of a ring. But I can't see why this ...
23
votes
6answers
6k views

Duals and Tensor products

Let $A$ be a commutative ring with a unit element. Let $M$ and $N$ be $A$-modules. Let $M^v$ and $N^v$ be the dual modules. In general, do we have $M^v \otimes N^v \cong (M\otimes N)^v$? It is ...
21
votes
2answers
5k views

Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous real-valued functions on R

For a compact space $K$, the maximal ideals in the ring $C(K)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $K$ are easily identified with the points of $K$ (a point defines the maximal ideal of functions ...
35
votes
6answers
2k views

On the universal property of the completion of an ordered field

I have been trying to write up some notes on completion of ordered fields, ideally in the general case (i.e., not just completing $\mathbb{Q}$ to get $\mathbb{R}$ but considering the completion via ...
20
votes
5answers
4k views

Noether's normalization lemma over a ring A

Given a field $k$ and a finitely generated $k$-algebra $R$ without zero divisors, one knows that there exist $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ algebraically independent such that $R$ is integral over $k[x_1, \ldots, ...
39
votes
2answers
2k views

Is every Noetherian Commutative Ring a quotient of a Noetherian Domain?

This was an interesting question posed to me by a friend who is very interested in commutative algebra. It also has some nice geometric motivation. The question is in two parts. The first, as stated ...
17
votes
4answers
4k views

A finitely generated $\mathbb{Z}$-algebra that is a field has to be finite

I was trying to understand completely the post of Terrence Tao on Ax-Grothendieck theorem. This is very cute. Using finite fields you prove that every injective polynomial map $\mathbb C^n\to \mathbb ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Existence of prime ideals and Axiom of Choice.

One of the must obvious equivalences of Axiom of Choice is the converse of Krull Theorem. Bernhard Banaschewski in the Article titled by A New Proof that “Krull implies Zorn” showed a very simple ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

von neumann algebras and measurable spaces

I've read some pages on links between von neumann (VN) algebras and measurable spaces (Spectra of $C^*$ algebras and Non-commutative geometry from von Neumann algebras?), but I can't get the following:...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Bijection implies isomorphism for algebraic varieties

Let $f:X\to Y$ be a morphism of algebraic varieties over $\mathbb C$. Assume that a) $f$ is bijective on $\mathbb C$-points b) $X$ is connected c) $Y$ is normal. Does it imply that $f$ is an ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

Smith Normal Form of powers of a matrix

What invariants of a matrix determine the Smith Normal Form (SNF) of all the powers of a matrix? The question makes sense over any PID $R$. If we let $M = M_n(R)$ and $G=Gl_n(R)$, then SNF is a ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

which homogeneous polynomials split into linear factors?

Let $R$ be the set of homogeneous polynomials of degree $n$ in $d$ variables over $\mathbb{C}$. When $n>2$, the set of elements of $R$ that split into a product of linear factors forms a proper ...
5
votes
2answers
283 views

Divisibility of the degree of an extension by the degree of its residual field

Let $A$ be an integrally closed domain whose quotient field is $K$, $L$ be a finite Galois extension of $K$, and $B$ be the integral closure of $A$ in $L$. Let $M_A$ be a maximal ideal of $A$, and $...
5
votes
1answer
202 views

$f,g \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ satisfying: $\operatorname{Jac}(f,g)=0$ and $f,g \notin \mathbb{Z}[h]$ for every $h \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$?

Is it possible to find $f,g \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ (with $\deg(f),\deg(g) \geq 1$) such that the following two conditions are satisfied: (1) $\operatorname{Jac}(f,g)=f_xg_y-f_yg_x = 0$. (2) ...
0
votes
2answers
306 views

Rank of a $ \mathbb{Z}_{p}[[T]] $ module

Let $p$ be a prime and $M$ is a finitely generated $ \mathbb{Z}_{p}[[T]] $ module. Suppose $M[p]$ denotes the $p$-torsion of $M$. Then $M[p]$ and $M/(p)$ are both $ F_{p}$ vector spaces. So we can ...
92
votes
2answers
11k views

When is the tensor product of two fields a field?

Consider two extension fields $K/k, L/k$ of a field $k$. A frequent question is whether the tensor product ring $K\otimes_k L$ is a field. The answer is "no" and this answer is often justified by ...
49
votes
12answers
13k views

Elementary / Interesting proofs of the Nullstellensatz

Is there an easy proof of the Nullstellensatz that avoids the standard Noether-normalization techniques? One proof I know proves first the 'weak' Nullstellensatz which ensures that maximal ideals ...
89
votes
1answer
10k views

A short proof for $\dim(R[T])=\dim(R)+1$

For a commutative ring $R$ we clearly have $\dim(R[T]) \geq \dim(R)+1$. If $R$ is noetherian, we have equality. Every proof I'm aware of uses quite a bit of commutative algebra and non-trivial ...
49
votes
2answers
3k views

a categorical Nakayama lemma?

There are the following Nakayama style lemmata: (the classical Nakayama lemma) Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ and $M$ a finitely generated $R$-module. If $m_1, \ldots, m_n$ generate $M$ ...
47
votes
4answers
5k views

Does “finitely presented” mean “always finitely presented”? (Answered: Yes!)

Precisely, if an R-module M has a finite presentation, and Rk → M is some unrelated surjection (k finite), is the kernel necessarily also finitely generated? Basically I want to believe I can ...
39
votes
3answers
11k views

When is the product of two ideals equal to their intersection?

Consider a ring $A$ and an affine scheme $X=SpecA$ . Given two ideals $I$ and $J$ and their associated subschemes $V(I)$ and $V(J)$, we know that the intersection $I\cap J$ corresponds to the union $V(...
39
votes
4answers
2k views

Why is there a duality between spaces and commutative algebras?

1) The category of affine varieties over $\mathbb{C}$ is equivalent to the opposite category of finitely generated reduced algebras over $\mathbb{C}$. The equivalence associates to an affine variety ...
62
votes
1answer
3k views

$R$ is isomorphic to $R[X,Y]$, but not to $R[X]$

Is there a commutative ring $R$ with $R \cong R[X,Y]$ and $R \not\cong R[X]$? This is a ring-theoretic analog of my previous question about abelian groups: In fact, in any algebraic category we may ...
35
votes
5answers
2k views

Explicit elements of $K((x))((y)) \setminus K((x,y))$

In an answer to the popular question on common false beliefs in mathematics Examples of common false beliefs in mathematics I mentioned that many people conflate the two different kinds of formal ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

reduced ⊗ reduced = reduced; what about connected?

Several questions actually. All rings and algebras are supposed to be commutative and with $1$ here. (1) Let $k$ be a field, and let $A$ and $B$ be two $k$-algebras. I need a proof that if $A$ and $...
26
votes
2answers
1k views

When is $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ surjective?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unit and let $q$ be an ideal of $R$. There is thus a natural map $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ for all $n$. This map is surjective if $SL(n,R/q)$ is generated by ...
22
votes
2answers
2k views

Criteria for irreducibility of polynomial

If $f, g\in \mathbb C[a,b]$ are polynomials in two variables, are there easy criteria that allow to see if $f(x,y)-g(t,z)\in \mathbb C[x,y,t,z]$ is irreducible? Thank you very much, best
20
votes
1answer
9k views

Rank of a module

What's wrong with defining the rank of a finitely generated module over any (commutative) ring to be just the smallest number of generators? All books I know define rank only locally this way. But why ...
13
votes
5answers
4k views

When a formal power series is a rational function in disguise

Given a formal power series $f \in k[[X]]$, where $k$ is a commutative field, is there any good way to tell whether or not $f\in k(X)$? Edit: To clarify, "good way to tell" means "computable ...
28
votes
2answers
4k views

Examples of algebraic closures of finite index

So there are easy examples for algebraic closures that have index two and infinite index: $\mathbb{C}$ over $\mathbb{R}$ and the algebraic numbers over $\mathbb{Q}$. What about the other indices? ...
13
votes
5answers
3k views

When are dual modules free?

Let $A$ be a commutative integral domain, with fraction field $K$. Let $T$ be a torsion-free finitely generated $A$ module, so $T \otimes_A K$ is a finite dimensional vector space $V$. Let $T^*$ be ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

Ideals of the ring of smooth functions

The ring $C^\infty(M)$ of smooth functions on a smooth manifold $M$ is a topological ring with respect to the Whitney topology and the usual ring operations. Is it possible to describe, maybe under ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

Questions about spectra of rings of continuous functions

I have been thinking a bit about rings of continuous functions of various kinds -- how they motivate the more modern notion of the Zariski topology on the prime spectrum as well as how they fit into a ...
13
votes
5answers
3k views

Axiomatic definition of integers

The real numbers can be axiomatically defined (up to isomorphism) as a Dedekind-complete ordered field. What is a similar standard axiomatic definition of the integer numbers? A commutative ordered ...
15
votes
6answers
2k views

What's an example of a transcendental power series?

Let $k$ be a field. What is an explicit power series $f \in k[[t]]$ that is transcendental over $k[t]$? I am looking for elementary example (so there should be a proof of transcendence that does ...
14
votes
1answer
908 views

Is $R=k[x_1,\ldots]\to k[[x_1,\ldots]]$ a flat morphism? What about $R\to\hat{R}$?

Let $k$ be a field. For $R=k[x_1,\ldots]$ with countably infinite number of variables, [due to the discussion in the comments] we have to make the following distinction between $k[[x_1,\ldots]]$ and ...
29
votes
3answers
2k views

Even XOR Odd Infinities?

Modular Arithmetic (MA) has the same axioms as first order Peano Arithmetic (PA) except $\forall x (Sx \ne 0)$ is replaced with $\exists x(Sx = 0)$. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peano_axioms#First-...
19
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the geometric object corresponding to a subalgebra in a polynomial ring

Many introductory texts on algebraic geometry set up some sort of algebra-geometry dictionary in which radical ideals correspond to varieties, and so on. I am wondering if there is a geometric way to ...
16
votes
4answers
2k views

Serre's theorem about regularity and homological dimension

One of the nicest results I know of is (Auslander-Buchsbaum-)Serre's theorem asserting that a (commutative!) local ring is regular iff it has finite global dimensional. I'd like to ask a somewhat ...
15
votes
4answers
2k views

Completion of a local ring of a curve

Let $X$ be a smooth projective irreducible curve defined over an algebraically closed field $\mathbb{K}$ (of arbitrary characteristic), and let $p\in X$ be a closed point. Denote by $\mathcal{O}_p(X)$ ...