# Questions tagged [4-manifolds]

A smooth 4-manifold is a 4-manifold with a smooth structure. In dimension four, in marked contrast with lower dimensions, topological and smooth manifolds are quite different.

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### $\exists X$?(No basis for $H_2(X)$ contains spheres)

Does there exist a smooth simply connected closed 4-manifold $X$ with the property below? Every smooth basis for $H_2(X)$ contains a surface with genus $\geq 1$. I understand that in general the ...
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### (Non-)Orientability of non-triangulable manifolds

We heard and learned from Mike Miller's answer to Not all manifolds can be triangulated: In which dimensions? that "All orientable 5-dimensional manifolds are triangulable. In dimensions at least 6, ...
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### Flat scalar curvature on 4 manifold

Let $(M,g)$ be a closed(oriented) Riemannian 4 manifold. It is well-known that, if $scal^g\geq0$ and not identically zero, then $M$ admits a PSC metric by conformal transformation. Q Is $T^4$ the ...
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### Obtaining the bounding 4-manifold from the Heegaard diagram

It is well known that any orientable closed 3-manifold $M$ admits an Heegaard splitting $M = H_1\cup H_2$ where $H_i$ is an handlebody of genus $g$. It is also well known that such an $M$ is the ...
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### Example of two exotic closed 4-manifolds s.t. SW(X)=0

I am interested in seeing examples of two closed 4-manifolds $X_1,X_2$ such that $SW(X_i)=0$ and they are homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic. So far in the literature I've only found examples which ...
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### Are triangulations with common refinements PL-homeomorphic?

Do there exist simplicial triangulations $K_1$ and $K_2$ of a topological manifold $M$ such that $K_1$ and $K_2$ have a common subdivision but they are not PL-homeomorphic? Ideally, I would like an ...
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### A user guide to the theory on Corks

I am trying to digest the meanings of the corks from the both: algebraic topology and geometry topology perspectives. Studying corks is important for understanding the exotic phenomenon of 4-...
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Let $L = K_1 \cup K_2 \subset S^3$ be a two component framed link with $lk(K_1,K_2) = 1$. Let $\hat{L}$ denote the set of all links obtained by handlesliding $L$ around an an arbitrary number of ...
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### Are there exotic twisted doubles of 4-manifolds?

Take a smooth 4-manifold $X$ whose boundary has a diffeomorphism $\tau: \partial X \to \partial X$ that extends to a homeomorphism but not a diffeomorphism of $X$. (By Matveyev and Curtis-Freedman-...
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### Is there a constructive proof that in four dimensions, the PL and the smooth category are equivalent?

Summary Famously, the categories of 4-dimensional smooth manifolds and 4-dimensional piecewise linear manifolds are equivalent. Is there a constructive proof for this theorem or does it depend on the ...
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### Relation between the Casson-Gordon invariants $\sigma(M, \chi)$ and $\sigma_r(M, \chi)$

Setting: There are two objects in knot theory that are commonly referred to as the Casson-Gordon invariants: the invariant $\sigma$, and the invariant $\tau$ (see for example A. Conway’s notes ...
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### Applications of E8 manifold

The $E_8$ Cartan matrix is given by,  K_{E_8}=\begin{pmatrix} 2 & -1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ -1 & 2 & -1& 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ ...
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### Homology spheres bounding homology balls but not embedding into $S^4$

Are there any examples of integer homology spheres $Y^3$ that bound smooth integer homology balls but that do not smoothly embeded into $S^4$?
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### smooth homotopy 4-balls with sphere boundary in dimension 4

What follows is, as far as I can tell, totally standard folklore. I have one particular point of confusion, other than that, I wanted to confirm that I am uttering the incantations correctly. The ...
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### Framings for 2-surgeries on 4-manifolds

I'm interested in doing $2$-surgeries to $\sharp^k S^1 \times S^3$. That is to the manifold obtained from applying $1$-surgeries to $S^4$. Since $\pi_1(O(3)) = \mathbb{Z}_2$, there are two possible ...
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### Simple invariants to detect concordance in general 3-manifolds

Let $Y$ be a closed, connected, orientable 3-manifold. We call to oriented knots $K_1, K_2$ in $Y$ (smoothly) concordant if there is a smoothly, properly embedded annulus in $Y \times I$ such that ...
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### Embedding problem for 3-manifolds attacked via 4-manifolds

In this archiv paper which is continuation of following: Borodzik, Maciej; Némethi, András; Ranicki, Andrew, Morse theory for manifolds with boundary, Algebr. Geom. Topol. 16, No. 2, 971-1023 (2016). ...
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### Is there a closed non-smoothable 4-manifold with zero Euler characteristic?

I will just repeat the title: Is there a closed non-smoothable 4-manifold with zero Euler characteristic? I am guessing yes simply based on other existence theorems I have seen for 4-manifolds.
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### What can we say about the Cartesian product of a manifold with its exotic copy?

Let $M$ be a smooth oriented manifold, and let $M^E$ be an exotic copy, i.e homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to $M$. Is it true that $M\times M$ is diffeomorphic to $M\times M^E$? I am ...
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### Lefschetz Fibrations and disk bundles

When reading chaptes 7 of Akbulut's book about $4-$manifolds, he describes a handle decomposition for a manifold given a Lefschetz fibration over $S^2$. The idea is to extend the preimage of a disk ...
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### Fundamental groups of non-orientable closed four-manifolds

The fundamental group of a closed orientable manifold is finitely presented, and every finitely presented group arises as the fundamental group of a closed orientable four-manifold; see this question. ...
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### Decribe the $S^2$ fibration over $S^2$ that gives $\mathbf{CP}^2\#\overline{\mathbf{CP}}^2$

According to this MO post, there is two possible $S^2$ fibration over $S^2$. One is obviously $S^2\times S^2$, another one is the connected sum of two copies of $\mathbf {CP}^2$ with different ...
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### Surgery and Curvature on Foliation

Let $X$ be an oriented closed smooth $4$-manifold. Suppose that $TM$ admits a foliation $\mathcal F$ of dimension two, and admits a positvescalar curvature. Q: If we do the surgery on $X$ to reduce ...
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### About Simon Donaldson's book on four dimensional manifold

Recently I'm reading Donaldson's Geometry of four manifolds. It seems to me that the book requires a lot for background. Additionally, the proof in the book is too sketchy without too much detail. I ...
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### Exotic 4-spheres and the Tate-Shafarevich Group

The title is a talk given by Sir M. Atiyah in a conference with the following abstract: I will explain a deep analogy between 4-dimensional smooth geometry (Donaldson theory)...
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### Intersection form of logarithmic transformations

Now I want to calculate the intersection form of a logarithmic transformation which is defined as follows. Let $X$ be an oriented, closed, simply-connected 4-manifold and $T^2\subset X$ be an ...
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### Are there exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$'s that are products with $\mathbb{R}$? [duplicate]

This came up in a conversation: Question: Is there an exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$ that smoothly splits off an $\mathbb{R}$ factor? More precisely, suppose that $\mathcal R$ is a smooth 4-manifold which ...
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### Surgery along an embedded surface in a 4-manifold

Let $X$ be a 4-manifold and $\Sigma_g\subset X$ be an embedded closed orientable genus = $g$ surface. Suppose $\Sigma_g\subset X$ has a trivial closed normal bundle $N(\Sigma_g) = \Sigma_g\times D^2$. ...
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### How can Wall's theorem be generalised to non-simply connected manifolds?

In a sense, this is a follow-up to this question. By work of Freedman and Wall, it is known that if two simply-connected 4-manifolds $M$ and $N$ are homeomorphic, then there is $k \in \mathbb{N}$ ...
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### Visualizing the 4th dimension [closed]

In a freshers lecture of 3-D geometry, our teacher said that 3-D objects can be viewed as shadows of 4-D objects. How does this helps us visualize 4-D objects? I searched that we can atleast see ...
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### Fundamental groups of open sets in $R^n$ with $n=3,4$

It is well known that every finitely presented group may be realised as fundamental group of some closed $4$-manifold. What groups can be obtained as fundamental groups of open subsets of $R^4$? I'...
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### Is a 4-dimensional submanifold of a spin manifold always spin?

Let $M^d$ be a $d$-dimensional orientable spin manifold, and $N^4$ is a closed $4$-dimensional orientable submanifold of $M^d$. Is $N^4$ always spin? If $d=5$, is $N^4$ always spin? If $N^4$ is a ...
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### Is there a four-manifold whose tangent bundle is an endomorphism bundle?

Is there a smooth four-manifold $M$ such that $TM \cong \operatorname{End}(E)$ for some rank $2$ bundle $E \to M$? If $M$ is parallelisable, then one can take $E$ to be the trivial rank $2$ bundle ...
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### Not all manifolds can be triangulated: In which dimensions?

I know that Ciprian Manolescu has settled the triangulation conjecture in the negative: Not all manifolds can be triangulated. I've only read secondary literature on this result, which did not detail ...
My questions here are focused on $D$-dimensional topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) which are unitary and which have finite dimensional Hilbert space on a closed spatial manifold $M^{d-1}$. ...