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Along the lines of Polynomial representing all nonnegative integers, but likely well-known question:

is there a polynomial $f \in \mathbb Q[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ such that $f(\mathbb Z\times\mathbb Z\times\dots\times\mathbb Z) = P$, the set of primes?

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No. Any such polynomial would have the property that any of its restrictions $f(x)$ to one variable consist only of primes, but this is easily seen to be impossible, since if $p(a)$ is prime then $p(k p(a) + a)$ is divisible by $p(a)$. (Even accounting for the coefficients in $\mathbb{Q}$ is straightforward by multiplying by the common denominator and using CRT; in fact, we can show that given an integer polynomial $q(x)$ and a positive integer $n$ there exists $x_n$ such that $q(x_n)$ is divisible by $n$ distinct primes.)

However, there do exist multivariate polynomials with the property that their positive integer outputs consist of the set of primes. See the Wikipedia article.

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