EDIT: Tony Pantev has pointed out that the answer to this question will appear in forthcoming work of Bogomolov-Soloviev-Yotov. I look forward to reading it!

## Background

Let $E \to X$ be a holomorphic vector bundle over a complex manifold. A connection $A$ in $E$ is called *holomorphic* if in local holomorphic trivialisations of $E$, $A$ is given by a holomorphic 1-form with values in End(E).

Notice that the curvature of $A$ is necessarily a (2,0)-form. In particluar, holomorphic connections over Riemann surfaces are *flat*. This will be important for my question.

## The Question

I am interested in the following situation. Let $E \to S$ be a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle over a Riemann surface of genus $g \geq 2$. I suppose that $E$ admits a global holomorphic trivialisation (which I do *not* fix) and that we choose a nowhere vanishing section $v$ of $\Lambda^2 E$. (So I *do* fix a trivialisation of the determinant bundle.) I want to consider holomorphic connections in $E$ which make $v$ parallel. The holonomy of such a connection takes values in $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$ (modulo conjugation).

My question: if I allow you to change the complex structure on $S$, which conjugacy classes of representations of $\pi_1(S)$ in $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb C)$ arise as the holonomy of such holomorphic connections?

EDIT: As jvp points out, some reducible representations never arise this way. I actually had in mind irreducible representations, moreover with discrete image in $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$. Sorry for not mentioning that in the beginning!

## Motivation

A naive dimension count shows that in fact the two spaces have the same dimension:

For the holomorphic connections, if you choose a holomorphic trivialisation of $E\to S$, then the connection is given by a holomorphic 1-form with values in $sl(2, \mathbb C)$. This is a $3g$ dimensional space. Changing the trivialisation corresponds to an action of $\mathrm{SL(2,\mathbb C)}$ and so there are in fact $3g-3$ inequivalent holomorphic connections for a fixed complex structure. Combined with the $3g -3$ dimensional space of complex structures on $S$ we see a moduli space of dimension $6g-6$.

For the representations, the group $\pi_1(S)$ has a standard presentation with $2g$-generators and 1 relation. Hence the space of representations in $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$ has dimension $6g-3$. Considering representations up to conjugation we subtract another 3 to arrive at the same number $6g-6$.

## A curious remark

Notice that if we play this game with another group besides $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$ which doesn't have dimension 3, then the two moduli spaces do not have the same dimension. So it seems that $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$ should be important in the answer somehow.