Can anyone give a reference, a proof, or a reference that explains why Maple can evaluate this identity mathematically correctly:


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    $\begingroup$ I recommend rewriting your question so that it makes more sense. Writing t for n-i-1 would be a good start, as well as asking what you really want, rather than a reference to why Maple does things correctly. Gerhard "Ask Me About System Design" Paseman, 2011.11.30 $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 30, 2011 at 16:50
  • $\begingroup$ I don't get your question: do you mean that you are surprised that Maple can do something correctly? Or, rather than why, are you asking how does Maple derive the identity. $$ $$ Anyway, the question is not clear as is, it needs motivation. See: mathoverflow.net/howtoask $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 30, 2011 at 17:20
  • $\begingroup$ A possible explanation, a bit tautological: Maple is able to make a number of formal simplifications on expressions like yours, so as to reduce them to some of the thousands of standard identities that it contains in its memory. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 30, 2011 at 17:25
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    $\begingroup$ You can get Maple to show the steps it is taking . That may or may not give a satisfying result (if that is what you really want to know). Improve your notation and try the cases $d=1,2,3,4$ to get some insight. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 30, 2011 at 17:52
  • $\begingroup$ I am curious about why anyone would down vote this?! It is a perfectly reasonable question. $\endgroup$
    – Igor Rivin
    Commented Nov 30, 2011 at 19:14

2 Answers 2


The canonical reference for this sort of thing is Petkovsek and Zeilberger's book "A=B". Maple (almost certainly) uses the Zeilberger-Wilf algorithm for hypergeometric summation (which really goes back to Bill Gosper). You can also read the Wilf-Zeilberger paper (Inventiones, around 1990).


As Gerhard Paseman suggested, it look better to replace $m=n-i-1$ and also $x=d-2$. With this the question takes the form $S:=\sum_{\ell=1}^m\binom{m}{\ell}\binom{m+x}{\ell}^{-1}\frac{x+1}m$ and we show $S\equiv1$. Let $$F(m,\ell):=\binom{m}{\ell}\binom{m+x}{\ell}^{-1}\frac{x+1}m \qquad \text{and} \qquad G(m,\ell):=-\binom{m}{\ell}\binom{m+x+1}{\ell}^{-1}\frac{m+x+1}m.$$ It's easy to check $$F(m,\ell)=G(m,\ell+1)-G(m,\ell), \tag1$$ say by dividing through with $F(m,\ell)$ and simplifying. Summing (1) over integers $\ell\geq0$ gives $$\sum_{\ell=0}^mF(m,\ell) =\sum_{\ell\geq0}G(m,\ell+1)-\sum_{\ell\geq0}G(m,\ell)=-G(m,0)=\frac{x+m+1}m.$$ Therefore, we arrive at $$S=\sum_{\ell=1}^mF(m,\ell)=\sum_{\ell=0}^mF(m,\ell)-F(m,0)=\frac{x+m+1}m-\frac{x+1}m=1$$ which is what aimed for.


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