# How to calculate [10^10^10^10^10^-10^10]?

How to find an integer part of $10^{10^{10^{10^{10^{-10^{10}}}}}}$? It looks like it is slightly above $10^{10^{10}}$.

• Either I am temorarily confused or I do not understand this question. (-10)^10 = 10^10, so? Or is there a typo? – user9072 Oct 27 '11 at 0:27
• Only slightly related, but for amusement, check out math.stackexchange.com/questions/72646/… – Joel David Hamkins Oct 27 '11 at 0:27
• @quid: It is -10^10, not (-10)^10. – GH from MO Oct 27 '11 at 0:28
• @GH: Thanks! So, it was me being confused. Sorry for the noise. – user9072 Oct 27 '11 at 0:35
• Dear Vladimir, I dont think so. Evaluate using the approximation exp x is close to 1+x when x is small (so 10^x is close to 1+log_e 10 x, and also 10^{a+b}=10^a 10^b. Is there a research motivation behind this cute) question? – Gil Kalai Oct 27 '11 at 0:38

I think the number in question is $10^{10^{10}}+10^{11}\ln^4(10)$ plus a tiny positive number. That is, it starts with a digit $1$, followed by $10^{10}-13$ zeros, then by the string $2811012357389$, then a decimal point, and then some garbage (which starts like $4407116278\dots$).
To see this let $x:=10^{-10^{10}}$, a tiny positive number, and put $c:=\ln(10)$, an important constant. We have $$10^x=1+cx+O(x^2)$$ $$10^{10^x}=10^{1+cx+O(x^2)}=10+10c^2x+O(x^2)$$ $$10^{10^{10^x}}=10^{10+10c^2x+O(x^2)}=10^{10}+10^{11}c^3x+O(x^2)$$ $$10^{10^{10^{10^x}}}=10^{10^{10}+10^{11}c^3x+O(x^2)}=10^{10^{10}}+10^{10^{10}}10^{11}c^4x+O(x^2),$$ where $O(x^2)$ means something tiny all the way.
In the last expression we have $10^{10^{10}}10^{11}c^4x=10^{11}c^4$, which justifies my claim.