What is the fixed point set of an order two automorhism group of an Enriques surface.

1$\begingroup$ Are there two questions here? 'Why?' is perhaps a bit too broad for MO. Would you accept "it follows from the axioms of ZFC"? :P $\endgroup$ – David Roberts Sep 14 '11 at 3:24

$\begingroup$ Ill edit it, if that bothers you. I was wondering if someone could analyze this if he/she doesnt have an answer. $\endgroup$ – user13559 Sep 14 '11 at 5:05

$\begingroup$ What do you want to know about the fixed point set? $\endgroup$ – J.C. Ottem Sep 14 '11 at 9:32

$\begingroup$ That what it is? Curves?points? how many? $\endgroup$ – user13559 Sep 15 '11 at 1:40
In general, the fixed locus of an involution $\iota$ on a smooth complex surface $S$ is the union of a smooth curve $D$ and of $k$ isolated points. This follows by Cartan's Lemma that says that in suitable holomorphic coordinates near a fixed point the action is linear.
There are trace formulae that relate these and the action of $\iota$ on the cohomology of $S$. (Holomorphic Fixed Point Formula): $$\sum_{i=0}^2(1)^i\text{Trace}(\iotaH^i(S,{\mathcal O}_S)) = \frac{kD\cdot K_S}{4}$$
(Topological Fixed Point Formula): $$\sum_{i=0}^4(1)^i\text{Trace}(\iotaH^i(S,\mathbb C)) = k+e(D)$$ where $e(D) = D^2D\cdot K_S$ is the topological Euler characteristic of $D$.
In the case of Enriques surface, $h^i({\mathcal O}_S)=0$ for $i=1,2$ and $h^1(S,{\mathbb Z})=0$, $h^2(S,{\mathbb Z})=10$. So the formulae above give you $k=4$ and the relation ${Trace}(\iotaH^2(S,\mathbb C)) = 2D^2$.
References: (1) the holomorphic fixed point formula can be found at pg.566 of M.F.Atiyah, I.M.Singer, The index of elliptic; (2) for the topological fixed point formula, see (30.9) of M. Greenberg, Algebraic Topology: A First Course, W. A. Benjamin Publ., Reading, Mass. 1981. operators: III, Ann. of Math. 87 (1968), 546604.

$\begingroup$ Dear Rita,Thanks. I will be pleased if you could tell me where I can find the proof of the above formulas and that the fixed point locus are isolated curves and points? $\endgroup$ – user13559 Sep 21 '11 at 18:53

$\begingroup$ I've edited the answer and inserted the references. $\endgroup$ – rita Sep 21 '11 at 20:21