That is, results established by correct proofs within some framework, yet the manner in which their author or the general mathematical community at the time would describe these results would, in later times, be interpreted as constituting a false claim, due to changing fashions as to how to standardly formalize some of the relevant concepts.

I imagine this sort of thing has happened often (e.g., with shifting accounts of "polyhedra" a la Lakatos' "Proofs and Refutations", or a motley of different definitions of "continuity" before standardization on the one we use now), but I do not have enough awareness of history to be able to provide solid examples (e.g., it seems plausible to me that Darboux may have considered himself to have proven that every derivative is continuous, taking the intermediate value property to be defining for continuity, but I do not know if this is an accurate account of what he claimed).

notdisprove any of Euclid's theorems. $\endgroup$5more comments