Integrate kˆ(n-1) / prod_{i=1…n} (kˆ(2)+x_iˆ{2}) dk between 0 and infinity, with x_i constants and n>=1? [closed]

[some formatting tweaked, and the question copied from the title to the main body, by YC]

Hi,

I've been struggling a lot to calculate this integral.

$$\int_0^\infty \frac{k^{n-1}}{\prod_{i=1}^n (k^2+ x_i^2)}\; dk$$ where $x_i$ are constants and $n\geq 1$.

I did the calculation for n=1,2,3,4, with the hope of identifying some form and then find the result by induction. But here is what I got:

• n=1: I= (pi/2) * abs(x1)

• n=2: I= (1/2) * 1/(x2ˆ(2)-x1ˆ(2)) * log(x2ˆ(2) / x1ˆ(2))

• n=3: I= (pi/2) * [abs(x1) (x2ˆ(2)-x3ˆ(2)) +abs(x2) (x3ˆ(2)-x1ˆ(2))+ abs(x3) (x1ˆ(2)-x2ˆ(2))] / [(x2ˆ(2)-x3ˆ(2) (x3ˆ(2)-x1ˆ(2)) (x1ˆ(2)-x2ˆ(2)]

• n=4: I= (1/2) * [ A1 log(x1ˆ(2)) + A2 log(x2ˆ(2)) +... A4 log(x4ˆ(2))), where Ai= xiˆ(2) / [ prod (xjˆ(2)-xiˆ(2))]

-->> This makes me think that the result depends on whether n is even or uneven; that is, we would have a form in log( ) for n even, and something in pi/2 for n uneven?

Could you please help me here? What is the correct result and how to get it?

Your help is so much appreciated, many many thanks in advance! Elise

closed as off-topic by Ricardo Andrade, Chris Godsil, Ryan Budney, Andrey Rekalo, Dmitri PavlovJan 20 '14 at 16:19

This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:

• "This question does not appear to be about research level mathematics within the scope defined in the help center." – Ricardo Andrade, Chris Godsil, Andrey Rekalo, Dmitri Pavlov
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

You are correct. Use the partial fraction decomposition: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_fraction For example, if $n=4$, the decomposition is (over the rationals):
$$\begin{array}{l} {\frac {ck}{ \left( {k}^{2}+c \right) \left( -c+a \right) \left( -c+ b \right) \left( -d+c \right) }}-\\\ {\frac {dk}{ \left( {k}^{2}+d \right) \left( -d+a \right) \left( -d+b \right) \left( -d+c \right) }}-\\\ {\frac {bk}{ \left( {k}^{2}+b \right) \left( -b+a \right) \left( -c+b \right) \left( -d+b \right) }}+\\\ {\frac {ak}{ \left( {k}^{2}+a \right) \left( -b+a \right) \left( -c+a \right) \left( -d+a \right) }}\end{array}$$ where $a=x_1^2,b=x_2^2,...$. I guess you can get the pattern. For odd $n$ there is no $k$ in the numerator. This is the cause of the difference you noticed.