Let G be a finite group. In general, given two normal subgroups N and K of G, we need not have N < K or K < N. The easiest example is the Klein 4-group V4 and its subgroups of order 2. So assume that G has such a property, that is, the normal subgroups of G constitute a chain with respect to inclusion. For example, simple groups, cyclic groups and symmetric groups satisfy this property. Certainly, if G has that property, then the normal subgroups are necessarily characteristic. Furthermore, the center of G must be cyclic. Indeed, every abelian group with this property must be a cyclic p-group (and vice-versa). This also shows that G/G' is cyclic, for the property is hereditary under quotients.

I would like to know if these groups have been studied before. If so, can you please provide some references?

nilpotentgroup with this property is cyclic. $\endgroup$