The question has an easy answer, if one replaces free by free abelian: Then the resulting group is always solvable and a solvable subgroup of a CAT(0) group is virtually abelian. If the resulting was CAT(0), then the chosen automorphism $\varphi$ in $\mathbb{Z}^n\rtimes_\varphi \mathbb{Z}$ would have finite order - otherwise the group would not be virtually abelian.

Now one can ask the same question for the free group instead or the free abelian group. I would like to know for which automorphisms $\varphi$ of the free group $F_n$ the group $F_n\rtimes_\varphi \mathbb{Z}$ is CAT(0).

I only know, that $F_n \times \mathbb{Z}$ is CAT(0). I think that if the chosen automorphism has finite order, then the result should be CAT(0) (although I don't have a proof). And I do not know automorphism, that gives a non-CAT(0) group.