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For a tuple of functions $\overline{p}$ on a set $Y$, let $cl_{\overline{p}}$ be the associated closure operation: $cl_{\overline{p}}(Z)$ is the smallest subset of $Y$ containing $Z$ and closed under each of the operations in $\overline{p}$. For $\overline{p}, Y$ as above and $A\subseteq Y$, let $\sharp_{\overline{p},Y}(A)$ be the size of the smallest set $\subseteq\mathcal{P}(Y)$ contianing $A$ as an element and closed under complementation and $cl_{\overline{p}}$.

Given an algebra $\mathcal{A}$ (in the sense of universal algebra), let the Kuratowski spectrum of $\mathcal{A}$ be the set of cardinals $n$ with the following property:

For some $\mathcal{B}\in\mathsf{HSP}(\mathcal{A})$ and some finite set $\overline{p}=p_1,...,p_k$ of polynomials (= terms with parameters) in $\mathcal{B}$, there is an $X\subseteq\mathcal{B}$ with $\sharp_{\overline{p}, \mathcal{B}}(X)=n$.

Hammer proved (see the introduction to Shallit/Willard) a general result that implies that we always have the Kuratowski spectrum is a subset of $[14]=\{1,2,...,14\}$. Meanwhile, $2$ is always in the Kuratowski spectrum (consider the trivial algebra), and it's easy to whip up examples of algebras with Kuratowski spectrum either of the extremes $[14]$ or $\{2\}$.

($1$ is impossible for the silly reason that the empty set isn't allowed as a carrier set of an algebra. If we do allow empty algebras, then every Kuratowski spectrum contains $\{1,2\}$, and the interesting question is what happens between $\{1,2\}$ and $[14]$.)

I'm generally curious about what the Kuratowski spectrum tells us about an algebra. One natural question here is which subsets of $[14]$ occur as Kuratowski spectra, but that seems difficult. I'm hoping the following will be easier to answer:

Question 1: Are there nontrivial algebras with Kuratowski spectrum $\not=[14]$?

In case the answer is yes, the natural follow-up question is:

Question 2: Are there algebras with incomparable (with respect to $\subseteq$) Kuratowski spectra?

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This is an affirmative answer to the first question.

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be any algebra whose fundamental operations are constant. Let $\mathcal{B}\in\mathsf{HSP}(\mathcal{A})$ be any algebra. The fundamental operations of $\mathcal{B}$ will also be constant, so the polynomial operations of $\mathcal{B}$ will be constant operations or projection operations.

Fix a sequence $\overline{p}=(p_1,\ldots,p_k)$ of polynomial functions of $\mathcal{B}$. Let $C$ be the set of images of the constant functions in the sequence $\overline{p}$. For any subset $Z\subseteq B$, one verifies that $cl_{\overline{p}}(Z)=Z\cup C$.

If we start with any subset $X\subseteq B$ and close under $cl_{\overline{p}}$ and complementation ($Z\mapsto Z^c := B-Z$), we can only generate:

$$ \{X, X^c, X\cup C, X^c\cup C, X\cap C^c, X^c\cap C^c\}. $$

Thus, at most 6 sets can be generated from $X$ by $cl_{\overline{p}}$ and complementation, not 14.

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