For any compact complex manifold there is a spectral sequence with $E_1$ term $H^{p,q}(M)$ which converges to $H^{p+q}(M)$. If $M$ were Kahler, then this spectral sequence would degenerate at the $E_2$ page, giving the familiar Hodge decomposition on cohomology.

In general, there is still a filtration on the cohomology, and the associated graded pieces will be sub-quotients of the $H^{p,q}(M)$.

So there is such a relationship between Hodge numbers and Betti numbers, but being able to write it down depends on being able to calculate the differentials in the spectral sequence.

Voisin's book, Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry has more information. There is also an interesting exercise in which you can calculate the precise relationship in the case when $M$ is a complex surface (not necessarily Kahler).