Let g(z) be an entire function of a complex variable z. Does there exist an entire function f(z) such that f(z+1)-f(z)=g(z)? As I learned several years back, the answer to this is apparently 'yes', but I have not felt satisfied with the proof because it goes beyond my expertise.
I tried to find f using the power series expansion of g, for that works when g is a polynomial. But the results of partial inversions kept diverging. Representing g as an integral via Cauchy's formula, and doing inversion inside the integration led to similar problems. Perhaps I am overly optimistic, but a question this elementary should have equally elementary solution. Is there such a solution? If not, is there a reason to expect that no simple and elementary solution should exist?