I think there is a slight mistake in the formulation of the question. $\mathbb{CP}^n$ is the homogeneous space $U(n+1)/(U(n) \times U(1))=SU(n+1)/G$ with $G= SU(n+1) \cap (U(n) \times U(1))$. The right formulation of question (2) is: is the spin structure on $\mathbb{CP}^n$ (for odd $n$, there is unique spin structure on $\mathbb{CP}^n$, see Charles Siegel's answer) $U(n+1)$-equivariant?

The answer is no, for a very elementary reason: if the spin structure were $U(n+1)$-equivariant, then it certainly were $U(n)$-equivariant,
where $U(n)$ embeds into the product in the standard way. But the $U(n)$-action on $\mathbb{CP}^n$ has a fixed point and it is not too hard to see that the $U(n)$-representation on the tangent space to that fixed point is isomorphic to the standard representation of $U(n)$ on $\mathbb{C}^n$. So if the spin structure were equivariant, then the fixed-point representation has to be spin, which is of course wrong.

You can ask the same question for spheres (is the spin structure on $S^n$ $SO(n+1)$-equivariant), and the answer is again no. But the spin structure on $S^n$ is $Spin(n+1)$-equivariant; likewise the spin structure on $\mathbb{CP}^n$ will be equivariant under the double cover of $U(n)$.

What you can guess from these two examples is that the question has something to do with double covers (alias central extensions of your group by $\mathbb{Z}/2$). Here is the precise relation: $M$ a spin manifold, $s$ a spin structure (viewed as a double cover of the frame bundle of $M$), $G$ a topological group acting on M by diffeomorphisms. The spin structure defines a new group $G'$ and a surjective homomorphism $p:G' \to G$ with kernel. $G'$ consists of pairs $(f,t)$, $f \in G$ and $t$ is an isomorphism of spin structures $f^* s \to s$. The spin structure is equivariant under $G'$, and it is $G$-equivariant iff there is $q:G \to G'$, $pq=\operatorname{id}$. If $G$ is a simply-connected topological group, this is always the case, but otherwise not in general.

This discussion implies that the spin structure on $\mathbb{CP}^n$ is indeed $SU(n+1)$-equivariant, if it exists. Grassmannians and other homogeneous spaces can be dealt with in the same way.