I have been doing research on the Niemeier lattices with root systems of type, $A_{k}^n$ and I am particularly interested in the finite groups permuting the constituent root systems. These groups seemed random at first, and they appeared to have a connection to certain projective linear groups over Galois fields with a prime number of elements. These root systems correspond to the divisors of $24$. I looked into the structures of the groups that permute the separate root systems and I was intrigued:

We will use the notation $K_{n}$ for the group that induces permutations on the corresponding Niemeier lattice $A_{k}^n$ (where $n·k = 24$).

## Cases $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$

$K_{1}$ can only be the trivial group as there is only $1$ vertex to act on and the only group that acts faithfully over any singleton set is trivial.

$K_{2}$ acts faithfully on $2$ vertices, corresponding to the exchange between the two root systems.

## Case $K_{3}$

This group is isomorphic to the symmetric group of degree $3$ (order $3!$ or $6$). It also happens(?) to be isomorphic to the projective special linear group, $L_{2}(2)$

## Case $K_{4}$

This group is isomorphic to the alternating group of degree $4$ (order $4!/2$ or $12$). This one is also isomorphic to another linear group, namely $L_{2}(3)$.

## Case $K_{6}$

This group is isomorphic to the symmetric group of degree $5$ (order $5!$ or $120$), but the striking thing about this is that it’s acting primitively on $6$ vertices, not $5$ vertices. This group is related to the projective special linear group $L_{2}(5)$. It has one representation that acts primitively on the $6$ vertices of $PG_{1}(5)$, and another representation on $5$ vertices, (the alternating group, $A_{5}$), and both are contained within the symmetric group over $6$ vertices, $S_{6}$.

## Case $K_{8}$

This group is isomorphic to $AGL_{3}(2)$ an affine group of rank $3$, over the Galois field of $2$ elements (order $8·7·6·4$ or $1344$). like all the other $K_{n}$ This group acts primitively on $8$ vertices. This one contains two distinct representations of the projective special linear group, $L_{2}(7)$ one of which is the action of the group $L_{2}(7)$ primitive over the $8$ vertices of $PG_{1}(7)$ the other is a group isomorphic to the first, another linear group $L_{3}(2)$. this one acts primitively over the $7$ vertices of $PG_{2}(2)$

## Case $K_{12}$

This group is isomorphic to one of the sporadic groups, namely $M_{12}$ the Mathieu group of degree $12$ (order $8·9·10·11·12$ or $95040$). this group contains two separate representations of the linear group $L_{2}(11)$, but unlike the previous two cases, only one of these groups is maximal within $K_{12}$ (namely the group $L_{2}(11)$ and its primitive action over the $12$ vertices of $PG_{1}(11)$). The other one is more subtle, as it’s not maximal in $M_{12}$, however it *is* maximal in another sporadic group $M_{11}$ (the stabiliser of either a point or a total within $M_{12}$). This representation of $L_{2}(11)$ acts primitively over $11$ vertices.

## Case $K_{24}$

This group is the most notable one, as it contains all the groups mentioned previously. It is isomorphic to a very interesting sporadic group called $M_{24}$ the Mathieu group of degree $24$ (order $3·16·20·21·22·23·24$ or $244823040$). It contains a linear subgroup of type $L_{2}(23)$, but unlike the previous cases there is only a single instance of this group, and there is no additional representation over $n - 1$ vertices. There is a lot of structure happening here, and frankly I haven’t enough space for that.

## A recapitulation of the groups $K_{n}$

**Orders:**

$|K_{1}| = 1 $

$|K_{2}| = 2 $

$|K_{3}| = 6 $

$|K_{4}| = 12 $

$|K_{6}| = 120 $

$|K_{8}| = 1344 $

$|K_{12}| = 95040 $

$|K_{24}| = 244823040 $

**Other facts:**

$K_{3} \cong S_{3} \cong L_{2}(2) $

$K_{4} \cong A_{4} \cong L_{2}(3) $

$K_{6} \cong S_{5} \supset L_{2}(5) \cong A_{5} $

$K_{8} \cong AGL_{3}(2) \supset (L_{2}(7) \cong L_{3}(2)) $

$K_{12} \cong M_{12} \supset M_{11} \supset L_{2}(11) $

$K_{12} \cong M_{12} \supset L_{2}(11) $

$K_{24} \cong M_{24} \supset L_{2}(23) $

$M_{24} \supset \text{ (all previous ones)} $

I have only two questions:

- Why do these $K_{n}$ have their respective structures instead of just $S_{n}$? What do they have in common?
- What sort of structure must these $K_{n}$ maintain under their respective group actions?

I will also remind us of what we defined the groups $K_{n}$ to be: the group of permutations of the separate root systems of the Niemeier lattices of type $A_{k}^n$ (with $n·k = 24$)

Edit: I forgot to mention: As of writing this, I have no proper experience in Niemeier lattices. I’d prefer it if the explanation were limited to group theory and a basic understanding of lattice theory.

Update: I had just found something interesting. These $8$ groups seem closely related to certain Umbral Groups (particularly, the ones of lambdacy $2$, $3$, $4$, $5$, $7$, $9$, $13$, and $25$) [7th November 2021, 21:05]

Proof of the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.01472.pdf

Umbral Moonshine and the Neiemeir Lattices: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5793.pdf

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