In 2018, Zidane asked What is the smallest unsolved Diophantine equation? The suggested way to measure size is substitute 2 instead of all variables, absolute values instead of all coefficients, and evaluate. For example, the size $H$ of the equation $y^2-x^3+3=0$ is $H=2^2+2^3+3=15$.

Below we will investigate only the solvability question: does a given equation has any integer solutions or not?

**Selected trivial equations.** The smallest equation is $0=0$ of size $H=0$. If we ignore equations with no variables, the smallest equation is $x=0$ of size $H=2$, while the smallest equations with no integer solutions are $x^2+1=0$ and $2x+1=0$ of size $H=5$. These equations have no real solutions and no solutions modulo $2$, respectively. The smallest equation which has real solutions and solutions modulo every integer but still no integer solutions is $y(x^2+2)=1$ of size $H=13$.

**Well-known equations.** The smallest not completely trivial equation is $y^2=x^3-3$ of size $H=15$. But this is an example of Mordell equation $y^2=x^3+k$ which has been solved for all small $k$, and there is a general algorithm which solves it for any $k$. Below we will ignore all equations which belong to a well-known family of effectively solvable equations.

**Selected solved equations.**

The smallest equation neither completely trivial nor well-known is $ y(x^2-y)=z^2+1$ of size $H=17$. As noted by Victor Ostrik, it has no solutions because all odd prime factors of $z^2+1$ are $1$ modulo $4$.

The smallest equation not solvable by this method is $ x^2 + y^2 - z^2 = xyz - 2 $ of size $H=22$. This has been solved by Will Sawin and Fedor Petrov On Markoff-type diophantine equation by Vieta jumping technique.

The smallest equation that required a new idea was $y(x^3-y)=z^2+2$ of size $H=26$. This one was solved by Will Sawin and Servaes by rewriting it as $(2y - x^3)^2 + (2z)^2 = (x^2-2)(x^4 + 2 x^2 + 4)$, see this comment for details.

Equation $ y^2-xyz+z^2=x^3-5 $ of size $H=29$ has been solved in the arxiv preprint

*Fruit Diophantine Equation*(arXiv:2108.02640) after being popularized in this blog post.Equation $ x(x^2+y^2+1)=z^3-z+1 $ of size $H=29$ has solution $x=4280795$, $y=4360815$, $z=5427173$, found by Andrew Booker. This is the smallest equation for which the smallest known solution has $\min(|x|,|y|,|z|)>10^6$.

Equation $ y^2-x^3y+z^3+3=0 $ of size $H=31$ has been the smallest open equation for over two years, and then has been solved by Denis Shatrov, see the answer.

Equation $ 3-y+x^2 y+y^2+x y z-2 z^2 = 0 $ of size $H=33$ has been the smallest open

**cubic**equation for some time, and then has been solved by Denis Shatrov, see here.Equation $ x^3 + y^3 + z^3 + xyz = 5 $ with $H=37$ has been listed here as the smallest open

**symmetric**equation, but then I found solution $x=-3028982$, $y=-3786648$, $z=3480565$, see the answer for details how it was found.

**Smallest open equations.** The current smallest open equations are the equations
$$
y^3+xy+x^4+4=0,
$$
$$
y^3+xy+x^4+x+2=0,
$$
$$
y^3+y=x^4+x+4
$$
and
$$
y^3-y=x^4-2x-2
$$
of size $H=32$.

One may also study **equations of special type**. For example, the current smallest open equations in two variables are the ones listed above. The current smallest open cubic equation is
$$
(x+1)y^2-xz^2=x^3+2x+2
$$
of size $H=34$, the current smallest open symmetric equation is
$$
x^3+x+y^3+y+z^3+z = x y z + 1
$$
of size $H=39$, while the current smallest open 3-monomial equation is
$$
x^3y^2 = z^3 + 6
$$
of size $H=46$.

**The shortest open equations.** I was told that it would be interesting to order equations by a more "natural" measure of size than $H$. Define the length of a polynomial $P$ consisting of $k$ monomials of degrees $d_1,\dots,d_k$ and integer coefficients $a_1,...,a_k$ as $l(P)=\sum_{i=1}^k\log_2|a_i|+\sum_{i=1}^k d_i$. This is an approximation for the number of symbols used to write down $P$ if we write the coefficients in binary, do not use the power symbol, and do not count the operations symbols. Note that $2^{l(P)}=\prod_{i=1}^k\left(a_i2^{d_i}\right)$ while $H(P)=\sum_{i=1}^k\left(a_i2^{d_i}\right)$. If we order equations by $l$ instead of $H$, then the current "shortest" open equations are
$$
y^2-x^3y+z^4+1=0
$$
$$
2 y^3 + x y + x^4 + 1 = 0
$$
and
$$
x^3 y^2 = z^4+2
$$
of length $l=10$.

For each of the listed equations, **the question** is whether they have any integer solutions, or at least a finite algorithm that can decide this in principle.

**The paper** *Diophantine equations: a systematic approach* devoted to this project is available online: (arXiv:2108.08705). Paper last updated 13.04.2022.

**The plan** is to list new smallest open equations once these ones are solved. The solved equations will be moved to the "solved" section.

Of course, in addition to the solvability question one may ask many other questions, e.g. whether the solution set is finite or infinite, how to describe all integer solutions, etc. Please see here for the current list of all smallest open equations in this project.

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