I'm researching about Hilbert's theorem which says that there isn't isometric immersion of a complete surface with constant negative Gaussian curvature in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm taking as a reference the book "Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces by Manfredo P. do Carmo" and also "A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry, Vol. 3 by Michael Spivak". I have only two specific doubts:

In the attached document, the Spivak's proof is presented first in English and then the do Carmo's proof in Spanish: click here

  • The first is that it must be shown that an asymptotic curve on a complete surface with constant negative Gaussian curvature can be defined in all $\mathbb{R}$, I have framed it in red in the attached document. The arguments mentioned in the documents I know are valid for compact surfaces but not for complete surfaces and I have not been able to come up with a clear proof of this result.
  • The second is about the injectivity of $X(s, t)$ in the first edition of do Carmo's book, he uses two lemmas within which he makes cases to arrive at the result, while in the current edition (2016) he mentions how to get there To that result of a faster one using coating applications but I haven't been able to find a clear proof, I haven't gotten stuck and I cann't get out of that, I have framed it in orange in the document.

I have been justifying the steps that both authors leave without proof, in order to fully understand this result but I cannot understand those two points that I mention, I hope they can help me, I thank you in advance.

  • $\begingroup$ There are several expositions that you can find by googling "hilbert theorem hyperbolic surface". For example, math.utah.edu/~treiberg/Hilbert/Hilber.pdf or maths.dur.ac.uk/users/anna.felikson/DG/DG19/… $\endgroup$
    – Deane Yang
    May 17, 2021 at 5:36
  • $\begingroup$ @DeaneYang Yes, of course I have read them and other documents but none answers my questions, that's why I wrote the specific question here. If you see both the first and second links show no ideas to test for injectivity of $X(s,t)$ or maybe a clear reason why the asymptotic curve should extend to all of $\mathbb{R}$. $\endgroup$
    – Zaragosa
    May 21, 2021 at 1:14
  • $\begingroup$ I'm thinking of writing up the proof myself. I don't recall the issue of injectivity, but my vague recollection is that the global existence of a net is because the sine-Gordon equation has global solutions. This is straightforward using PDE theory, but I don't know if Do Carmo or Spivak explain this carefully. $\endgroup$
    – Deane Yang
    May 21, 2021 at 2:35
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ If you can write it, I would be very grateful, as I mentioned, it is only those two details that are not clear to me from the test. Of all, if I get any progress, I will write it here so that you can give me your comments. $\endgroup$
    – Zaragosa
    May 21, 2021 at 3:01
  • $\begingroup$ Check out the proof of Theorem 3 of Moore's paper: "Isometric immersions of space forms in space forms" $\endgroup$
    – Christos
    Oct 2, 2021 at 17:17


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