Let $X$ be a compact Riemann surface. We fix a complex vector bundle $E$ of rank $n$ and degree $d$ (unique up to diffeomorphism). From results coming originally (I think at least) by Simpson,Donaldson and Hitchin one gets an equivalence between:

- Polystable Higgs field $(\bar{\partial_E},\phi )$ where $\bar{\partial_E}$ is a $(0,1)$ connection giving an holomorphic structure to $E$

-Projectively flat connections $\nabla$ over $E$ with semisimple monodromy.

The correspondence more or less is based on the following fact. We fix an Hermitian metric $h$ on $E$ and we decompose $$\nabla=\nabla^h+ \Phi $$ where $\nabla^h$ is an Hermitian connection and $\Phi$ an adjoint operator. Then we take the pair $((\nabla^h)^{(0,1)},\Phi^{(1,0)})$.In the semisimple monodromy situation this is a (poly)stable Higgs field.

However, I've not understood a fact: starting from a projectively flat $\nabla$ we can look at its $(0,1)$ part $\nabla^{(0,1)}$: this defines an holomorphic structure over $E$ as $ \nabla^{(0,1)}\nabla^{(0,1)}=0$. Is this holomorphic structure the same (or better said isomorphic) to the structure induced by the couple $((\nabla^h)^{(0,1)},\Phi^{(1,0)})$. I tried to prove this by computing everything by hand, but I'm not able to provide an answer, neither a possible counterexample.