**Notation:** We say a sequence of real numbers diverges if it does not converge to a finite limit. We say a sequence $f_n$ of real valued functions on $[0, 1]
$ are equibounded if $\sup_{n \in \mathbb N}\sup_{x \in [0, 1]} |f_n (x)| < \infty$.

**Some motivation:**

The Arzela Ascoli theorem for $C[0, 1]$ says that if we have an equibounded, equicontinuous sequence of functions, we have uniform convergence along a subsequence. What happens if we drop equicontinuity (but retain continuity of the functions)? What kind of convergence can we expect?

For any countable subset $S$ of $[0, 1]$, we can still diagonalize to get pointwise convergence on $S$ along a subsequence $f_{n_k}$ that depends on $S$. But conjecturally this is the best we can do in general. Indeed as far as pointwise convergence is concerned, we have:

**Theorem 1:** There exists an equibounded sequence of continuous functions $f_n: [0, 1] \to \mathbb R$ such that for every increasing sequence $n_k$ of naturals, $f_{n_k} (x)$ diverges for almost every $x \in [0, 1]$.

However, the examples that I am familiar with all rely on some sort of “independence” or equidistribution type argument. For such examples, one intuitively expects $f_n$ to converge in the Cesàro sense. To illustrate, we consider the following two examples. The first of these was proposed by Yuval Peres in discussion on a separate forum.

**Example 1:** Take $f_n (x) = \sin(nx)$.That $f_n$ satisfy the conditions in Theorem 1 can be seen by noting that by Weyl’s criterion for equidistribution, the sequence $n_{k}x \ \text{mod} \ 1$ is equidistributed for a.e. $x \in [0, 1]$. However by the same coin, we have that for *any* subsequence, $f_{n_k} (x)$ converges in the Cesàro sense for almost every $x$.

**Example 2:** Consider the domain $[0, 1]$ as a probability space, and take $g_n$ to be the indicator function of independent events with probability $1/2$ each. Then an argument based on the second Borel-Cantelli lemma gives us that the $g_n$ satisfy all conditions in Theorem 1 except continuity. We can then approximate the $g_n$ by a sequence $f_n$ of continuous functions, whence $f_n$ satisfy the conditions in Theorem 1. But again it can be shown that for any subsequence, $f_{n_k} (x)$ converges in the Cesàro sense almost everywhere.

This suggests the following question:

**Question:** Does there exist an equibounded sequence of continuous functions $f_n: [0, 1] \to \mathbb R$ such that for every increasing sequence $n_k$ of naturals, $\lim_{N \to \infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{k = 0}^{N-1} f_{n_k}(x)$ almost everywhere fails to exist?

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