The definition of "arithmetic groups" depends essentially on the definition of group of $\mathbb{Z}$ points of a linear algebraic group scheme $\textbf{G}$. The group of $\mathbb{Z}$ points needs be made precise. Up to finite index, we can say the group of $\mathbb{Z}$ points is the stabilizer of a $\mathbb{Z}$-module $\Lambda\approx \mathbb{Z}^n$, e.g. $\Gamma=PGL(\mathbb{Z}^n)$. Compare Platonov-Rapinchuk's "Algebraic Groups and Number Theory", pp.172--173, especially Proposition 4.2. All the standard arithmetic groups have this form ($PGL, Sp, O$, etc.).

We find the answer to your question is "yes" in a certain sense, if we take the lattice-stabilizer definition of arithmetic groups. In this case, we can identify $Z_\Gamma H$ as the stabilizer of a $\mathbb{Z}[H]$-lattice:

We assume that $\Gamma$ is defined as the stabilizer of a lattice $\Lambda$ in some representation $V$ of $G$ defined over $\mathbb{Q}$. It is enough to show the centralizer $Z_\Gamma H$ is "arithmetic", since the indices $[Z_\Gamma H : N_\Gamma H]$ and $[Z_G H : N_G H]$ are finite whenever $H$ is finite.

If $H$ is finite subgroup of $\Gamma$, then the lattice, that is, $\mathbb{Z}$-module $\Lambda$ defining $\Gamma$ naturally becomes a $\mathbb{Z}[H]$-module. Likewise the $\mathbb{Q}$-vector space $V$ defining the representation $G$ naturally becomes a $\mathbb{Q}[H]$-module. Then $Z_\Gamma H$ is "arithmetic" in that $Z_\Gamma H$ consists of all $\mathbb{Q}[H]$-linear automorphisms which stabilize the $\mathbb{Z}[H]$-module $\Lambda$. Thus the $\mathbb{Z}[H]$-module $\Lambda$ becomes the lattice of "integer points" inside the $\mathbb{Q}[H]$-module $V$ *defining* the arithmeticity of $Z_\Gamma H$. Even more we see $Z_\Gamma H$ is basically the "$\mathbb{Z}$-points" of $Z_G H$, i.e. those $\mathbb{Q}[H]$-automorphisms which stabilize the lattice $\Lambda$.

3more comments