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In the paper Hall's theorem for hypergraphs (Aharoni and Haxell, 2000), the authors prove a theorem on the existence of perfect matchings in bipartite hypergraphs, using Sperner's lemma. At the last page (6), they say that "we have here a topological proof of Hall's theorem" (for bipartite graphs). I thought it should be easy to write this proof explicitly, since a simple bipartite graph is just a bipartite hypergraph in which each hyperedge is of size 2. But there is a problem: during the proof, the authors assume that the sets of neighbors (i.e., the sets $N(x)$ for each vertex $x\in X$, where $X$ is one part of the hypergraph) are pairwise-disjoint. For a hypergraph, this assumption is without loss of generality, since we can add dummy vertices to edges, and this does not affect the theorem conditions or concludion. But in a graph, we cannot add vertices to edges.

So my question is: is there an explicitly-written proof of Hall's marriage theorem, using Sperner's lemma (or a similar topological theorem)?

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Penny Haxell's 2011 paper On Forming Committees in the American Mathematical Monthly explicitly uses Sperner's lemma to prove Hall's theorem for bipartite graphs (see theorem 4.1 and 4.2).

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In addition to Carlo Beenakker's answer that gives Hall via Sperner directly, I think you can also get it by applying Hall's Theorem for Hypergraphs as follows. Let $G$ be a bipartite graph with partite sets $X, Y$, and write $V(X) = \{x_1, \ldots, x_n\}$. For each $i$, define a $1$-uniform hypergraph $H_i$ with vertex set $N(x_i)$ and edge set $\{ \{y\} : y \in N(x_i) \}$.

Letting $\mathcal{A} = \{H_1, \ldots, H_n\}$, we see that $\mathcal{A}$ has a disjoint set of representatives if and only if $G$ has a matching that saturates $X$. Now the condition of Aharoni and Haxell's Theorem 1.1 applied to the family $\mathcal{A}$ is clearly equivalent to Hall's Condition on $G$. Since classical Hall's Theorem falls out of the hypergraph version so quickly, I think it's fair to think of the topological proof of the hypergraph version as also being a topological proof of Hall's theorem.

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