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Given an interval $[a,b]$ what is the minimum degree of univariate polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ that passes through all primes between $a$ and $b$ (denoted by $\mathbb P[a,b]$ with total number of primes in $[a,b]$ given by $\pi(b-a)=|\mathbb P[a,b]|$)?

$\forall x,y\in\{1,\dots,\pi(b-a)\},f(x),f(y)\in\mathbb P[a,b]$ and $f(x)<f(y)\iff x<y$.

It is at most $O(\pi(b-a))$ and is there a reason to believe it cannot be $o(\pi(b-a))$?

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  • $\begingroup$ What do you mean by saying a polynomial "passes through" a prime? What points are you interpolating? $\endgroup$ – Robert Israel Jul 1 at 16:14
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Equivalently, you want to interpolate the points $(i, p_i)$, $i = m \ldots n$ where $p_i$ is the $i$'th prime.

The prime $k$-tuples conjecture implies that for each integer $k > 2$ and each $d$ from $1$ to $k-1$, there are infinitely many $m$ such that with $n=m+k$ the minimum degree of the interpolating polynomial is $d$.

The conjecture says that $(p_{m+1}-p_m, p_{m+2}-p_m, \ldots, p_{m+k} - p_m)$ is, for infinitely many $m$, any increasing $k$-tuple of even integers such that there is no prime $q$ for which this covers all residues mod $q$. In particular this implies that for a given $k>2$, if $A$ is the product of all primes $\le k$ and $d \ge 1$ there are infinitely many $m$ such that $p_j = p_m + A (j-m)^d$ for $m \le j \le m+k$. Thus in such a case, if $d \le k-1$ the minimum degree is $d$.

EDIT: see also OEIS sequence A335435.

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