A functor $C \to D$ between categories induces a morphism of presheaf categories $Pre(D) \to Pre(C)$. This functor has a left adjoint given by left Kan extension and I am interested in knowing when this left adjoint preserves pull-back squares.

I'm interested in any conditions that make this happen, but I am particularly interested in a special case. Let me say a little more about the context I am working in, and why I am interested. In the situation that this came up $C$ is a "lluf" subcategory of $D$, that is $C$ has the *same objects* as $D$ and the functor $C \to D$ is *faithful*. In that case it is good to call the functor $U:Pre(D) \to Pre(C)$ the forgetful functor. It automatically preserves limits and colimits. Let L be its left-adjoint.

Since C has the same objects as D, this forgetful functor is also *conservative*, meaning that it reflects isomorphisms. So by general non-sense (specifically Beck's monadicity theorem) this is a monadic adjunction. This means that $Pre(D) = T-alg$ is the category of T-algebras in $Pre(C)$ where T is the monad $T= UL$.

I'm trying to understand conditions under which this monad is *cartesian* in the sense described at the n-lab. This means, among other things, that the monad T is supposed to send fiber products to fiber products. This is equivalent to having L send fiber products to fiber products. I want to understand when this happens. Does it always happen? Are there reasonable conditions on C or D that ensure that this happens?

Notice that I am not asking for L to be "left-exact", i.e. to commute with all finite limits. This property is generally much too strong. In particular L will not usually preserve terminal objects. This means it doesn't preserve products, but should instead send products to fiber products over $L(1)$.

Here is an example. Let $C = pt$ be the singleton category and $D = G$ be the one object category with morphisms a group G. There is a unique inclusion $C \to D$ which is obviously faithful. The forgetful functor $$U:Pre(D) \to Pre(C)$$ sends a G-set to its underlying set. The left adjoint L sends a set S to the free G-set $S \times G$. This doesn't preserve terminal objects, but it does commute with fiber products. What is more, the monad $T=UL$ is a classic example of a cartesian monad in the n-lab sense.

I've played around with this, but can't seem to get it to work. I feel like this is going to be a well known result or there is going to be a counter example which sheds light on the situation.

Question: In the context I described above (where $C \to D$ is lluf), does the left adjoint $$L: Pre(C) \to Pre(D)$$ always commute with fiber products? If not what is a counter example, and are there conditions one can place on C and D to ensure that L does commute with fiber products?

flat, i.e. "has (co?)filtered (co?)commas". Now, "filtered"="has a cocone under every finite diagram". What if we replace this with "…every finiteconnecteddiagram"? Will this condition be equivalent to $f \otimes -$ preserving finite connected limits? I suspect this won't quite work, but that something similar will. $\endgroup$ – Peter LeFanu Lumsdaine Aug 3 '10 at 22:36