Let me summarize what is known about Chern classes and the Chern character on singular varieties, expanding on the comments to the question.

- On a normal variety the first Chern class is easily defined by removing the singular locus (which is of codimension at least two) and closing up the first Chern class on the nonsingular part. Then $c_1(\mathcal F)$ is an element of the Chow group $CH_{\dim(X)-1}(X)$, isomorphic to the class group of Weil divisors.

(ADDED: If a variety is non-normal then there is no homomorphism $c_1$ from the Grothendieck group of coherent sheaves to $CH_{\dim(X)-1}(X)$. For instance, if $X$ is a nodal union of two $\mathbb{P}^1$ intersecting in a point, $CH_0(X) = \mathbb{Z}$, and the structure sheaves of the two components are forced to have $c_1$ equal to $1/2$)

In general there is no way to define $c_2$ for coherent sheaves in Chow groups with integer coefficients which would satisfy the usual axioms of Chern classes. Given that Chow groups of singular varieties in general do not form a ring, it is not exactly clear what axioms one would impose on $c_2$. However, for quotient singularites (such as cone over a conic), when Chow groups form a ring rationally, $c_2$ is forced to be non-integral for structure sheaves of Weil divisors. See Langer's paper ``Chern classes of reflexive sheaves on normal surfaces" for the construction of $c_2$ (rationally!) satisfying some of the expected axioms. Langer also presents an example due to Kawamata, showing that multiplicativity of the total Chern class under exact sequences can not hold true.

Baum-Fulton-Macpherson in http://www.numdam.org/article/PMIHES_1975__45__101_0.pdf construct Chern character for singular varieties as a homomorphism from K-theory of coherent sheaves to Chow groups with rational coefficients. The construction proceeds by embedding $X$ into a smooth variety $M$ and constructing the Chern character as an element in Chow groups of $M$ with supports $X$, which is isomorphic to Chow groups of $X$ and then showing independence of $M$. This Chern character provides an isomorphism between rational K-group of coherent sheaves and rational Chow groups. Given all the problems with $c_2$ explained in (2), it's amazing that this works!