**Main question**

- In the context of resistor networks, and particularly purely from a graph theory point of view, is there a consistent way of assigning the two electrode nodes in order to compare the conductivity or equivalently the resistance of two networks?

The intuitive choices might be:

Choosing the furthest (graph distance) two nodes in the network and computing the equivalent resistance between those.

Randomly choosing the two nodes and averaging over a certain number of realisations.

Fixing the distance between the measuring (electrode) nodes, therefore, measuring resistance as a function of graph distance.

Either of these definitions have an arbitrary aspect to them. For example, if we choose the first definition, then the two networks may have very different diameters, and therefore, we'd be comparing resistances at different distances.

For simplicity, we can assume the individual resistors (edge values) to be constant and uniformly distributed.

**Context:**

Generally, for this question one can assume any connected graph of $n$ nodes and $m$ edges where each edge is a resistor. Then with the generalized Kirchhoff's laws and assuming Ohm's relation holds, the circuit theory equations in matrix form can be written as follows:

The nodal voltages and currents:

$$ \psi = (\psi_1, \cdots, \psi_n)^T $$ which together with the incidence matrix $D$[*] of the graph allows to write the voltages across edges as:

$$ V= D^T \psi $$ Similarly, for the nodal currents ($J$) and currents across edges (I): $$ J = DI. $$

With Ohm's law, we have a linear relation between the current and voltage, e.g. current at a given edge $x$ is given by:

$$ I_x = G_k V_x $$ where $G$ is an $m$ by $m$ diagonal matrix of conductances (inverse of each value corresponding to resistances) across each edge, which we can assume to be uniformly assigned to $1,$ so $G$ is for now an identity matrix.

Then given two electrode nodes $i$ and $j,$ in order to measure the resistance between them, we can insert a current of $1$ and $-1$ at each node respectively with other nodal currents set to zero, and we solve the linear system of form $Ax=b$ given by $DGD^T \psi = J,$ which yields $\psi.$ Having the nodal voltages and currents, we can compute the resistance with $R_{i,j}=\frac{\psi_i - \psi_j}{1}.$

[*]: Each column of $D$ corresponds to an edge of the graph and contains exactly one $1$ at the tail-node of the edge and one $-1$ at the head-node of the edge.

**Re-iterated questions:**

Given two graphs $G_1$ and $G_2$ (each assumed connected), one might e.g. be a transformed version of the other, how should the electrode nodes be assigned in order to consistently compare the conductivity of the two graphs? Are any of my suggestions at the start valid? In other words, is there any way of making statements about the conductivity of two graphs independently of the choice of electrode nodes?

In general, in the context of conductivity of random graphs and random resistor networks, is the dependence of conductivity/resistance on the choice of electrodes a well studied problem?

**Addendum:**

In order to better clarify the specific context of interest and in view of the discussions so far, I write here additional details:

I am primarily interested in the case of graphs treated as resistor networks, i.e. simple connected graphs (can be random graphs), given by a vertex set and edge set, where each vertex is circuit junction and each graph edge $(i,j)$ is a resistor of $r_{ij}=1$ Ohm.

In this context, we can for instance define a metric in terms of the effective resistance between two arbitrary vertices, often also called resistance distance between the nodes. And at the level of graphs, we do not have a dimensionality problem, of 2D or 3D that we'd have in the context of uniform continuous bodies (generally simple connected spaces) for which methods such as the vdP as mentioend in the answer below exist for computing their resistivity.

Instead, focusing on graphs, we can compute the resistance tensor $R_{ij},$ by e.g. assuming a homogeneous edge-wise resistance distribution $r_{ij}=1$ Ohm for all edges $(i,j)$, and insert a current $I=1 $A between two arbitrary nodes and compute the voltage drop across all pairs of vertices yielding the effective resistance $R_{ij}$ between them (aka the resistance distance between nodes $i,j$), as summarised in the **context** section above. But this (i.e. the $R_{ij}$'s) is always dependent on the choice of vertices, and I am trying to learn if there exists a measure of resistivity/conductivity for the entire graph, quantifying how conductive/resistive a graph is based on its underlying connectivity structure, and thus providing a means of comparison between different graphs, and irrespective of where on the graph one would place the electrodes.

In this regard, I have e.g. found out about the Kirchhoff index of graphs, which is the sum of the effective resistances across all pairs of vertices, and the Cheegar constant of graphs, which if I understood correctly, characterizes how "bottlenecked" flow across the graph can become, but given the close analogy to random walks, and confusing terminology (e.g. Cheegar constant is also called *conductance* of a graph), I don't know which of these, if any, represent a valid measure of electrical conductivity of the graphs, or if other definitions of *graph resistivity* exist.