Tannakian formalism tells us that for any rigid, symmetric monoidal, semisimple category $\mathcal{C}$ equipped with a fiber functor $F: \mathcal{C} \to Vect_k$ for a field $k$ (of characteristic $0$) there exists a reductive algebraic group $G \cong Aut(F)$ such that $\mathcal{C} \cong Rep(G)$. This means that any such category is associated with a root datum.

Is there a version of this reconstruction theorem that will tell us when a category $\mathcal{C}$ is the category of finite dimensional representations of a semisimple group? I would like to be able to associate with a Tannakian category a root system, and not just a root datum.

moreinformation (root system + lattice containing it). $\endgroup$moreinformation than a root system). Indeed, your choice to work with simply connected $G$ seems to be effectively a choice of root datum. $\endgroup$