**Background:** It is currently unknown whether $e$ is normal. A natural way to approach this question is to find a class to which $e$ belongs, and prove all members of that class are normal. For example, if we want to know whether $\sqrt{2}$ is normal, it makes sense to consider the class of irrational algebraic numbers, but it is still an open problem whether every irrational algebraic number is normal. Finding a counter-example to this conjecture, or a similar conjecture for an appropriate class containing $e$, would be quite useful to understanding the problem in general.

**Differential Rings with Composition:** One natural class containing $e$ seems to be numbers definable without parameters in the language of differential rings with composition, say in the space of analytic functions on $\mathbb{C}$. The language of differential rings with composition is $(0,1,+,*,\partial,\circ)$, where $0$, $1$ are the additive and multiplicative identities (constant functions), $+$ and $*$ are addition and multiplication, $\partial$ is a derivation (in this case differentiation), and $\circ$ is composition. We can define the constant function $e$ in this language by the formula $$\psi(x) : \exists f [(\partial f = f) \wedge (f \circ 0 = 1) \wedge (f \circ 1 = x)]$$

**Question:** Is there a non-normal irrational number definable without parameters in the ring of analytic functions on $\mathbb{C}$ in the language of differential rings with composition?

I expect this is quite a hard question, so answers slightly modifying the question would also be welcome. For example, perhaps it helps to generalize to algebraic elements in this differential ring with composition, rather than just definable elements, or to work in a different differential ring into which $\mathbb{R}$ embeds. This is a larger class of numbers than algebraic numbers, so in principle it should be an easier question to answer in the positive than the corresponding question of whether there is a non-normal irrational algbraic number.