What references and resources (e.g. video recorded lectures) are available for learning chromatic homotopy theory and related areas (such as formal geometry)?
I am not sure whether it is in the spirit of the original question, but let me add a wordy version of Theo's extensive and excellent bibliography  a bit more of a road map. Let me divide to this purpose chromatic homotopy theory pseudohistorically in different phases. The years denote the "main phase"; in each case developments have continued after.
Phase 0: Prehistory  MU and the image of J (1960  1965)
For the computation of $\pi_*MU$, Switzer's Algebraic Topology and Lurie's Chromatic homotopy theory are good, for example. For the image of $J$, the classic paper On the groups J(X) IV by Adams a still good to have a look at.
Phase 1: AdamsNovikov spectral sequence, formal groups and greek letters (1967 1977) This was started by Novikov's introduction of the AdamsNovikov spectral sequence; note that in the same paper a link to formal groups was already established in an appendix by Mischenko! The main points of this phase were to develop a structure theory of BP using formal groups to do computations in the AdamsNovikov spectral sequence, in particular in relation to the elements produced by SmithToda complexes ($\alpha, $\beta$ and $\gamma$family).
 The most comprehensive reference for this is Ravenel's Complex Cobordism and Stable Homotopy Groups of Spheres, Douglas C. Ravenel.
 For the structure theory of $MU_*MU$ and $BP_*BP$ it is also good to look at Part II of Adams's Stable Homotopy and Generalized Homology and at Wilsons's BrownPeterson Homology: Introduction and sampler.
 A shorter overview to the computational aspects is also contained in Ravenel's A novice guide to the AdamsNovikov spectral sequence
 The definite article from this era is MillerRavenelWilson Periodic phenomena in the AdamsNovikov spectral sequence (1977)
 For SmithToda complexes it is also good to look at the much later paper The SmithToda complex $V((p+1)/2)$ does not exist by Nave.
 Also have a look at Goerss's The AdamsNovikov Spectral Sequence and the Homotopy Groups of Spheres
Phase 1b: Unstable computations of homology with respect to $MU$ and $K(n)$ (19731980) This was started in Wilson's thesis and two of the main paper's of this part are the RavenelWilson papers The Hopf ring for complex bordism (1977) and The Morava Ktheories of EilenbergMacLane spaces and the ConnerFloyd conjecture (1980). Later expositions include Wilson's BPsampler mentioned above and Section 2 of HopkinsLurie's Ambidexterity paper A nice addition to the topic was the 1994 HopkinsHunton paper On the structure of spaces representing a Landweber exact cohomology theory. Hill and Hopkins have also a project, extending some of the results to a $C_2$equivariant setting.
Phase 2: Large scale phenomena (19791988)
This is dominated by the theory of Bousfield localization and the Ravenel conjectures. This is well explained in Lurie's chromatic homotopy theory notes. Also Ravenel's paper Localization with respect to periodic homology theories is still a very good read. Other sources include Ravenel's "orange book" and the original papers by (Devinatz), Hopkins and Smith.
Phase 3: Designer spectra and new computations
The crucial step was here the GoerssHopkinsMiller theorem about the action of the Morava stabilizer group on the LubinTate spectra (aka Morava Etheory). This allowed to define higher real Ktheory and a little later also $TMF$. The higher real Ktheories were used by GoerssHennMahowaldRezk (and many others) to write down resolutions for $K(2)$local spheres and many explicit computations were (and are) done for and using higher real Ktheories. For higher real Ktheories and the like some good sources are:
 Rezk: Notes on the HopkinsMiller theorem
 GoerssHopkins: Moduli Spaces of Commutative Ring Spectra (last section)
 Goerss, Henn, Mahowald, Rezk: A resolution of the K(2)local sphere at the prime 3
Phase 3b: Unstable telescopic homotopy theory (1982  )
There is a notion on $v_n$periodic unstable homotopy groups. For a survey of the (computational aspects of the) older literature, have a look at Davis's article in the Handbook of Algebraic Topology. Davis, Thompson and especially Mahowald were maybe the founders of the theory, but Bousfield did an enormous amount of work here, culminating in On the $2$primary $v_1$periodic homotopy groups of spaces. For the modern aspects, the notes from the Thursday seminar contain a very good treatment. There are also at least two papers of Kuhn that are recommended in this context:
Phase 4: Entering (derived) algebraic geometry (??)
In principle, this phase begins with the insights of Morava around 1970. These were translated by Wilson and so into more traditional language. But the insight came back by the introduction of the language of stacks into algebraic topology. Some classic sources here are:
 Hopkins: COCTALOS
 Naumann: The stack of formal groups in stable homotopy theory
This was much enhanced in the construction of $TMF$, where a sheaf of $E_{\infty}$ring spectra was constructed on the moduli stack of elliptic curves. Theo has already linked some of the best sources for this, but I want to add Goerss's surveys, in particular his Bourbaki presentation. The derived algebraic geometry perspective was of course taken much more seriously in Lurie's approach, with the relevant articles again linked in Theo's answer.
A lot more could (and should) be said, especially about applications to more classical problems. The Kervaire invariant 1 problem uses some serious Phase1 chromatic homotopy theory. Topological modular forms have been applied to construct new classes in the cokernel of $J$ and thus to obtain new exotic spheres (see e.g. the article of WangXu and the preprint of BehrensHillHopkinsMahowald). $tmf$ has also been used to obtain new results on generalized SmithToda complexes and thus to a better understanding of the AdamsNovikov 2line (see the HHA article by BehrensHillHopkinsMahowald and the HopkinsMahowald article published in the $TMF$book).
Preliminaries (i.e. Advanced Algebraic Topology)
General References
 Advanced Algebraic Topology, Alexander Kupers;
 More Concise Algebraic Topology, J. Peter May;
 Introduction to Homotopy Theory, Paul Selick;
 Lecture Notes on Homotopy Theory and Applications, Laurentiu Maxim;
 Algebraic Topology, volume 2 of notes by Sanath Devalapurkar on lectures by Haynes Miller. See also volume 1;
 Modern Classical Homotopy Theory, Jeffrey Strom;
 近代ホモトピー論（1940年代から1960年代まで）, in Japanese, Akihiro Tsuchiya and Nakai Hirofumi;
Model Categories
 Part 4 of Item 2;
 Introduction to Homotopy Theory, nLab;
 Sections 2.1–2.3 of Higher Categories and Homotopical Algebra, DenisCharles Cisinski;
 (Parts of) Categorical Homotopy Theory, Emily Riehl;
 Model Categories, Mark Hovey;
 Homotopical Algebra, notes taken by Sasha Patotski on a course taught by Yuri Berest;
 Notes on Homotopical Algebra, Zhen Lin Low;
 Chapters 4–6 of Equivariant stable homotopy theory and the Kervaire invariant problem, Michael Hill, Michael Hopkins, and Douglas Ravenel;
 Chapter 10 of Item 6;
Spectral Sequences
 The Adams Spectral Sequence, John Rognes;
 Chapter 5 of Hatcher, Allen Hatcher;
 A User's Guide to Spectral Sequences, John McCleary. Also available here;
 Spectral Sequences, Fabian Hebestreit, Achim Krause, Thomas Nikolaus;
 Chapter 2 of Item 4;
 Chapter 6 of Item 5;
 Part 6 of Item 6;
 Introduction to Spectral Sequences, nLab;
 Introduction to the Adams Spectral Sequence, nLab;
 The Serre Spectral Sequence, Maximilien HolmbergPéroux;
 代数的トポロジー, 信州春の学校 1, スペクトル系列, in Japanese;
 An Adams Spectral Sequence Primer, Robert R. Bruner.
Stable Homotopy Theory
 Notes on stable homotopy theory, Kirsten Wickelgren;
 Spectra and Stable Homotopy Theory, Notes by Akhil Mathew on a course delivered by Michael Hopkins;
 Introduction to Stable Homotopy Theory, nLab;
 Symmetric Spectra, Stefan Schwede;
 An Introduction to Stable Homotopy Theory, Maximilien HolmbergPéroux;
 Chapter 2 of Item 52;
 Stable Homotopy and Generalised Homology, J. F. Adams;
Chromatic Homotopy Theory
 Handbook of Homotopy Theory, in particular the following two references;
 LubinTate theory, character theory, and power operations, Nathaniel Stapleton;
 Chromatic structures in stable homotopy theory, Tobias Barthel and Agnès Beaudry;
 The 2013 Juvitop (on chromatic homotopy theory);
 The 2013 Talbot Workshop (on chromatic homotopy theory);
 Lurie's notes on chromatic homotopy theory, Jacob Lurie;
 Christopher J. SchommerPries's notes on Lurie's course on chromatic homotopy theory;
 Sanath Devalapurkar's notes on chromatic homotopy theory;
 Complex Cobordism andStable Homotopy Groups of Spheres, Douglas C. Ravenel;
 Nilpotence and Periodicity in Stable Homotopy Theory, Douglas C. Ravenel;
 David Mehrle's notes on the Chromatic Homotopy Theory: Journey to the Frontier workshop. Check also the notes available on the workshop webpage;
 Eva Belmont's notes on the 2016 West Coast Algebraic Topology Summer School on chromatic homotopy theory;
 The AdamsNovikov Spectral Sequence and the Homotopy Groups of Spheres;
 Cobordism, Cohomology Theories and Formal Group Laws, Lev Kiwi;
 Complex Oriented Cohomology Theories and the Language of Stacks (also knows as “COCTALOS”);
 Aaron MazelGee's notes on the 2011 West Coast Algebraic Topology Summer School;
 On Thom Spectra, Orientability, and Cobordism, Yuli B. Rudyak. Also available here;
 A Short Introduction to the Telescope and Chromatic Splitting Conjectures, Tobias Barthel;
 Introduction to Cobordism and Complex Oriented Cohomology, nLab;
 See also Item 34;
 Notes on Cobordism, Haynes Miller;
 A Survey of Computations of Homotopy Groups of Spheres and Cobordisms, Guozhen Wang and Zhouli Xu;
 Fall 2018 Homotopy Theory Seminar, notes by Arun Debray;
 Chapter 6 of Generalized Cohomology, Akira Kono and Dai Tamaki;
On Formal Groups, Formal Schemes, and Their Relation to Chromatic Homotopy Theory
 Formal Groups, Neil P. Strickland;
 Formal Schemes and Formal Groups, Neil P. Strickland;
 Formal Geometry and Bordism Operations, Eric Peterson. Also available on GitHub;
 QuasiCoherent Sheaves on the Moduli Stack of Formal Groups, Paul G. Goerss;
 Lectures on Formal and Rigid Geometry, Siegfried Bosch. Also available here;
 Lectures on LubinTate spaces, Michael Hopkins;
Miscellaneous Advanced Topics
 The past Juvitop seminars;$^1$
 Lectures on Power Operations, Charles Rezk;
 Notes on the HopkinsMiller Theorem, Charles Rezk;
 A Guide to TensorTriangulated Classification, Paul Balmer;
Elliptic Cohomology and Topological Modular Forms
 Elliptic Homology and Topological Modular Forms, Lennart Meier;
 United Elliptic Homology, Lennart Meier;
 Supplementary Notes for Math 512 (on topological modular forms), Charles Rezk;
 Elliptic Cohomology and Elliptic Curves, Charles Rezk. Video recorded lectures available here;
 Constructing Elliptic Cohomology, Matthew Greenberg;
 Topological modular and automorphic forms (Part of the Handbook of Homotopy Theory), Mark Behrens;
 Topological Modular Forms, book by Christopher L. Douglas, John Francis, André G. Henriques, Michael A. Hill;
 Course Notes for Elliptic Cohomology, Michael Hopkins;
 $\mathrm{TMF}$ doctoral student seminar notes;
 Chapter 9 of Item 16;
 See also this reference list;
Topological Automorphic Forms
 Topological Automorphic Forms, Mark Behrens and Tyler Lawson;
 An Overview of Abelian Varieties in Homotopy Theory, Tyler Lawson;
 Ravenel's Seminar;
 Paul VanKoughnett's Seminar;
Lurie's Work on Elliptic Cohomology
 Spectral Algebraic Geometry, Jacob Lurie;
 A Survey of Elliptic Cohomology, Jacob Lurie;
 Notes on a Seminar on A Survey of Elliptic Cohomology, nLab;
 A Survey of Lurie's A Survey of Elliptic Cohomology, Aaron MazelGee;
 Elliptic Cohomology I, Jacob Lurie;
 Elliptic Cohomology II, Jacob Lurie.
 Spectral Algebraic Geometry, Charles Rezk.
There is also this seminar. While there are no notes, one may use it as a guide, studying the topics of the talks using other sources.
$^1$ When notes are available, one should put notes_YEAR_SEASON/
between /pastseminars/
and the file name. For example, write http://math.mit.edu/juvitop/pastseminars/notes_2016_Fall/Nishida.pdf
for http://math.mit.edu/juvitop/pastseminars/Nishida.pdf
.

1$\begingroup$ You might want to change the link to Schwede's book to the more recent version, especially since it is slightly harder to find. It contains more material and it is generally better $\endgroup$ – Denis Nardin Feb 25 at 16:34

$\begingroup$ @DenisNardin Thank you very much! I fixed it. $\endgroup$ – Théo de Oliveira Santos Feb 25 at 16:38

1$\begingroup$ Wow  thanks for this! I didn't know about many of these. (I also didn't know how to access notes from previous Juvitops, but that's due to my own lack of technological prowess...) $\endgroup$ – skd Feb 26 at 22:00

$\begingroup$ @skd Thank you for writing some of these! $\endgroup$ – Théo de Oliveira Santos Feb 26 at 22:40

$\begingroup$ (To anyone:) Feel free to edit this answer to add/correct references! (Don't worry about (e.g. repeating) the numbering in doing so, I'll fix it later) $\endgroup$ – Théo de Oliveira Santos Feb 26 at 22:40