At Lee Mosher's request, here is how Borel-Harish-Chandra is applied, which is the bulk of the argument (with some additional work in the case with torsion as described in Aurel's post).

Let $A$ be a finitely generated (associative unital) ring whose underlying additive group is free abelian of finite rank. From left multiplication we get a representation of $A$ on $B=A\otimes_\mathbf{Z}\mathbf{R}$, and thus an injective ring homomorphism $i:A\to M=\mathrm{End}(B)\simeq M_d(\mathbf{R})$, where $\mathrm{End}$ means as real vector space; it maps into $E=E(\mathbf{R})$, the set of endomorphisms as algebra.

Inside $E\times E$, consider the set $G$ of pairs $(x,y)$ such that $xy=1$. This is a Zariski closed submonoid of $E\times E$, and can be identified to the automorphism group of $B$; it lies inside $M_{2d}(\mathbf{R})$. For $x\in A^\times$, consider $j(x)=(x,x^{1})$. Then the group homomorphism $j$ maps injectively $A^\times$ into $G(\mathbf{Z})$. We claim that this is surjective. Indeed, consider $(x,y)\in E(\mathbf{Z})\times E(\mathbf{Z})$ with $xy=1$. Then $x$ preserves the lattice of integral points, i.e., $x$ induces an automorphism of $A=B(\mathbf{Z})$. [Note: we had to introduce $E\times E$ instead of $E$ to describe $G$ as a closed subgroup, which is necessary to apply Borel-Harish-Chandra.]

Thus we have $A\simeq G(\mathbf{Z})$. Borel and Harish-Chandra precisely proved (Annals of Math, 1962) that $G(\mathbf{Z})$ is finitely generated (and even finitely presented, as mentioned in Borel's ICM proceeding of 1962) for every $\mathbf{Q}$-defined subgroup of $\mathrm{GL}_k$.

[Remark: $G(\mathbf{Z})$ is possibly not a lattice in $G(\mathbf{R})$; however $G(\mathbf{Z})=H(\mathbf{Z})$ for some $\mathbf{Q}$-defined normal subgroup $H$ of $G$, such that $G^0/H^0$ is a $\mathbf{Q}$-split torus, and $H(\mathbf{Z})$ is a lattice in $H(\mathbf{R})$.]

reducedscheme of finite type over $\operatorname{Spec} \mathbb Z$, then $\Gamma(X,\mathcal O_X)$ is finitely generated. He gives counterexamples if the reducedness assumption is dropped (e.g. $\mathbb Z[x][\varepsilon]/(\varepsilon^2)$), but those are not finite over $\operatorname{Spec} \mathbb Z$ (only of finite type). See Bruno Kahn,Sur le groupe des classes d'un schéma arithmétique. $\endgroup$ – R. van Dobben de Bruyn Jul 5 '18 at 21:012more comments