This is more of an expansion of Sam's comments, but too long for a comment itself:
As pointed out by Sam in that Theorem 126.96.36.199, tilting modules of the linear type $A_n$ quiver are in natural correspondence to triangulations of a regular $(n+3)$-gon.
Short answer: Any bijection between triangulations and Dyck paths would work, and there are plenty. Everyone is "natural" in some respect and "unnatural" in others.
Longer answer: Triangulations of a polygon might be generalized to all finite type using either of the following:
- noncrossing partitions $NC$
- clusters $CL$
- Coxeter-sortable elements $CS$
and there is a uniform type-independent bijection between them.
On the other hand, Dyck paths might be generalized to antichains in the root poset of a finite crystallographic type $AC$.
One now has
$$|NC| = |CL| = |CS| = |AC|$$
and indeed many refinements of this identity hold (such as the one mentioned in Section 4.7).
The closest connection between the two that is known is (caution, self-reference!) the article A uniform bijection between nonnesting and noncrossing partitions jointly with Drew Armstrong and Hugh Thomas.
There is much more to say and more references to give, please look into (again caution!) Cataland: Why the Fuss? for all needed notions and references.