This is only a comment about classes of rings in which **no** counter-examples can be found.

Since a one-dimensional GCD domain is a Bézout domain [1, Corollary 3.9], GCD domains will not provide any counter-example.

We will show that Dedekind domains will not provide any counter-example either. To do so, we will use the following well-known lemma (see e.g., Matsumura's "Commutative Ring Theory") and two subsequent claims.

**Lemma.** Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity. Let $\mathfrak{a}, \mathfrak{b}, \mathfrak{c}$ be ideals of $R$. Assume that $\mathfrak{c}$ is co-maximal with both $\mathfrak{a}$ and $\mathfrak{b}$, i.e., $\mathfrak{a} + \mathfrak{c} = \mathfrak{b} + \mathfrak{c} = R$. Then $\mathfrak{c}$ is co-maximal with $\mathfrak{ab}$.
*Proof.* $R = (\mathfrak{a} + \mathfrak{c})(\mathfrak{b} + \mathfrak{c}) \subseteq \mathfrak{ab} + \mathfrak{c} \subseteq R$.

The following claim is a general fact about commutative domains.

**Claim 1.** Let $R$ be a commutative domain with identity. Let $M(R)$ be the submonoid of $R \setminus \{0\}$ generated by the units of $R$ together with the prime elements $p$ such that $Rp$ is a maximal ideal of $R$. Let $S(R)$ be the subset of $R \setminus \{0\}$ consisting of the non-zero elements $a$ such that $Ra + Rb$ is principal for every $b \in R$. Then $M(R) \subseteq S(R)$.

*Proof.* Let $a = up_1^{\alpha_1} \cdots p_n^{\alpha_n} \in M(R)$ where $u$ is a unit of $R$ and where the elements $p_i$ are distinct prime elements such that $Rp_i$ is a maximal ideal for every $i$. Let us show by induction on $s = \alpha_1 + \cdots + \alpha_n$ that $a$ belongs to $S(R)$. If $s = 0$, it is immediate. Let us suppose that $s > 0$ and let $b \in R$. We can certainly assume that $b \neq 0$. Let $\beta_i$ be the largest integer such that $p_i^{\beta_i}$ divides both $a$ and $b$ and set $d = p_1^{\beta_1} \cdots p_n^{\beta_n}$. If $d$ is not a unit, then the induction hypothesis applies to $a/d$ and yields a Bézout relation with $b/d$ so that $a \in S(R)$. Otherwise, the element $b$ cannot be divided by any of the $p_i$. Thus $Rb$ is co-maximal with $Rp_i$ for every $i$. By the above lemma, we deduce that $Rb$ is co-maximal with $Ra$, and hence $a \in S(R)$.

Our last claim establishes that no counter-example to OP's condition can be found in a Dedekind domain.

**Claim 2.** Let $R$ be Dedekind domain and let $a \in R$ such that $Ra \cap Rb$ is principal for every $b \in R$. Then $a \in M(R)$.

*Proof.* Let $a$ be a non-zero element in $R \setminus M(R)$. By hypothesis, there is a maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ appearing in the decomposition of $Ra$ which is not principal. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem, we can find $b \in R$ such that $b \in \mathfrak{m} \setminus \mathfrak{m}^2$ and $b$ doesn't belong to any of the other maximal ideals containing $a$. In the group of fractional ideals of $R$, we have $Ra \cap Rb = (Rab)\mathfrak{m}^{-1}$ so that $Ra \cap Rb$ cannot be principal.

[1] P. Sheldon, "Prime ideals in GCD domains".