Every Grothendieck quasitopos is presentable and locally cartesian closed. These are categories of separated presheaves on a site. The simplest example of a site whose separated presheaves do not form a topos is the one-point topological space: the category of separated presheaf on it is the category of sets with an initial object $0$ freely added. This category doesn't have disjoint coproducts, since $X\times_{X\sqcup Y}Y\simeq \emptyset $ is not initial. More generally, this should work for any site with an initial object that is covered by the empty sieve.

For completeness, let me add the examples discussed in the comments, which are of a different nature: a locale, a.k.a. a $0$-topos, is presentable and locally cartesian closed, but not a topos.
This is an instance of the more general fact that every $n$-topos is presentable and locally cartesian closed, but not an $m$-topos for $m>n$.

Finally, if $k$ is a field, then the ∞-category of motivic spaces over $k$, i.e., $\mathbb A^1$-invariant Nisnevich sheaves on smooth $k$-schemes, is presentable and locally cartesian closed, but is known not to be an ∞-topos: the $0$-truncated group object $a_{Nis}(\mathbb Z[\mathbb A^1-0])$ is an $\mathbb A^1$-invariant Nisnevich sheaf, but it is not equivalent to the loops on its bar construction (so the simplicial colimit in the bar construction is not van Kampen). In light of this, it seems likely that the 1-category of $\mathbb A^1$-invariant Nisnevich sheaves of sets on smooth $k$-schemes (which is locally cartesian closed) is not a topos, but I don't know.