Let $W$ be a cobordism between $n$-manifolds $M$ and $N$, and $f\colon W \mapsto X$ be a map to some manifold $X$.

Does anybody know of any nice examples of general relationships between the images of the maps $g_*\colon H_*(M)\mapsto H_*(X)$ and $h_*\colon H_*(N)\mapsto H_*(X)$ induced by the restrictions $g=f\mathrel{|M}$ and $h=f\mathrel{|N}$, based on some given data about about these manifolds?

For Example, if $M=N$ and $W=[0,1]\times M$, then $f$ is a homotopy between $g$ and $h$, so $g_*=h_*$. Also, if our manifolds are oriented and compact, $X$ is a connected $n$-manifold, and $f$ is smooth, then the degree of $f\mathrel{\mathrel{|}\partial W}=f\mathrel{\mathrel{|}M\coprod N}$ is zero, so the degrees of $g$ and $h$ are equal up to sign, as are the images of $g_*$ and $h_*$ in degree $n$ homology.