In two dimensions, you have a powerful tool, the Riemann mapping. If you have a compact set in the plane whose complement is connected, knowing explicitly
the map of the complement onto the exterior of the unit disk gives you the log capacity. Now take a book on complex variables with many examples of conformal maps, and you can calculate capacities of many planar sets. I recommend the book
by

L. Volkovyskii, A collection of problems in complex analysis, there is an English Dover edition, which is a real encyclopedia of explicit conformal maps.
(If you can read some Russian, there is another book: M. A. Evgrafov, Problems in the theory of analytic functions).

All examples given in the paper that you cite can be obtained with this method.
For the disc, ellipse and the segment the conformal map is the Joukowski function, for the square and triangle use a modified Schwarz-Christoffel formula, and it leads to Gamma function. (All this is covered in the book of Volkovyskii cited above.
You can easily generalize the last two examples to regular $n$-gons with any $n$. The answer is in terms of Gamma function; it is written in Polya, Szego, Isoperimetric problems of mathematical Physics.

It is more difficult in dimension 3 and higher (Newtonian potential). A good collection of explicitly computed capacities is contained in the book N. S. Landkof, Foundations of modern potential theory (there is an English translation).

EDIT. Here are some detail for the regular $n$-gon. We want to map the exterior region onto the exterior of the unit disk so that $\infty\to\infty$ by a function $f$.
To do this, break the exterior region into $n$ congruent triangles with one vertex at infinity,
and other two vertices the adjacent vertices of the polygon. The interior angles
of a triangle are $2\pi/n$ at $\infty$ and $\pi/2+\pi/n$ at finite vertices. Now map one of these triangles onto the sector $\{ z: |\arg z|<\pi/n, |z|>1\}$. So that
$\infty\to\infty$ and other two vertices go to $e^{\pm i\pi/n}$. By the symmetry
principle this function will have an analytic continuation to the whole exterior
and map it onto the exterior of the unit disk, so it is our $f$.
The required map of the triangle onto a sector is performed
with the Schwarz-Christoffel formula, and the integral which is involved is reduced to the Gamma-function. Then $f(z)\sim az,\;z\to\infty$ and capacity is $1/|a|$.