Let $X$ be a smooth curve over a number field $K$ (not necessarily proper). Fix an algebraic closure $\overline{K}$ of $K$.

Let $i,i' : \overline{K}\hookrightarrow\mathbb{C}$ be two abstract embeddings (ie, as $\mathbb{Q}$-algebras). Let $X_\mathbb{C},X_{\mathbb{C}}'$ be the base changes of $X_{\overline{K}}$ to $\mathbb{C}$ via $i$ and $i'$. Then, $X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C})$ has the structure of a Riemann surface. Let $x\in X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C})$ come from a $\overline{K}$-rational point. We may consider its topological fundamental group $\pi_1^{top}(X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C}),x)$. Since every finite cover of the Riemann surface $X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C})$ is algebraic, for every loop in $\pi_1^{top}(X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C}),x)$, its monodromy action on the fibers at $x$ of its finite covers determines an automorphism of the fiber functor at $x$, and hence we obtain a homomorphism $$\pi_1^{top}(X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C}),x)\rightarrow \pi_1^{et}(X_\mathbb{C},x)$$ which is known to be the embedding of the first group into its profinite completion. The map $X_\mathbb{C}\rightarrow X_{\overline{K}}$ given by base change induces an isomorphism on etale fundamental groups, and composing these maps we get $$\pi_1^{top}(X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C}))\longrightarrow \pi_1^{et}(X_\mathbb{C})\stackrel{\sim}{\longrightarrow}\pi_1^{et}(X_\overline{K})$$ where I've omitted the base points because I only care about these maps up to conjugacy (say, inside $\pi_1^{et}(X_{\overline{K}})$). Similarly, with $X_\mathbb{C}'$, we get a map

$$\pi_1^{top}(X'_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C}))\longrightarrow \pi_1^{et}(X'_\mathbb{C})\stackrel{\sim}{\longrightarrow}\pi_1^{et}(X_\overline{K})$$

Both of these maps give embeddings of the topological fundamental groups inside $\pi_1^{et}(X_{\overline{K}})$, canonical up to conjugation.

My question is:

**When are the images the same (up to conjugation)?**

Are there examples when the images are not the same?

I'm particularly interested in the case when $X_\mathbb{C}(\mathbb{C})$ is hyperbolic.

References would also be appreciated.

Exemples de variétés projectives conjuguées non homéomorphes. Of course for curves the topological fundamental groups are abstractly isomorphic, so this doesn't answer your question. Serre's embeddings come from the Galois theory of $K \to \bar K$. $\endgroup$