Triality is a relationship among three vector spaces. It describes those special features of the Dynkin diagram D4 and the associated Lie group Spin(8), the double cover of 8-dimensional rotation group SO(8).

SO(8) is unique among the simple Lie groups in that its Dynkin diagram (below) (D4 under the Dynkin classification) possesses a three-fold symmetry. This gives rise to a surprising feature of Spin(8) known as triality. Related to this is the fact that the two spinor representations, as well as the fundamental vector representation, of Spin(8) are all eight-dimensional (for all other spin groups the spinor representation is either smaller or larger than the vector representation). The triality automorphism of Spin(8) lives in the outer automorphism group of Spin(8) which is isomorphic to the symmetric group $S_3$ that permutes these three representations.

What are physics and math applications of $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality?

- For example, one of physics applications of $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality is that, in the classifications of interacting fermionic topological phases protected by global symmetries, the 1+1D BDI Time-Reversal invariant Topological Superconductor and 2+1D $Z_2$-Ising-symmetric Topological Superconductor have $\mathbb{Z}_8$ classifications (see a related post here), that can be deduced from adding non-trivial four-fermion interaction terms respect the $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality, see for example the Appendix A of this web version (free access).

More precisely, the Spin(8) triality specifies the symmetry allowed interation terms for the following systems: a chiral $p_x+i p_y$ with a anti-chiral $p_x-i p_y$ superconductor. Combine a chiral $p_x+i p_y$ with a anti-chiral $p_x-i p_y$ superconductor, what we obtain is a **Topological Superconductor** respect to $Z_2$-Ising global symmetry as well as a $Z_2^f$-fermionic parity symmetry. So it is a 2+1D $Z_2 \times Z_2^f$-Topological Superconductor. It turns out that stacking from 1 to 8 layers of such $Z_2 \times Z_2^f$-Topological Superconductor ($p_x+i p_y/p_x-i p_y$), you can get 8 distinct classes (and at most 8, mod 8 classes) of TQFTs. They are labeled by $\nu \in \mathbb{Z}_8$ classes of 2+1D fermionic spin-TQFTs:

This $\mathbb{Z}_8$ is related to the 3rd spin cobordism group $\Omega^{3,spin}_{tor}(B\mathbb{Z}_2,U(1))=\mathbb{Z}_8$.

There may be other examples, other applications in physics and in mathematics(?). In particular, I have an impression that one can use $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality in

string theory(but may not count as real-world physics) or possibly indisorder condensed matter systemornuclear energy spectrum. If that is true, could one explain how does the $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality come in there? In the previous example, I give, the concept ofnon-perturbative ('t Hooft) anomaly matchingis implicit hidden there in the strongly-coupled higher order Majorana interactions.Do we see something similar or different concepts of the $SO(8)$ and Spin(8) triality applications?

[Citations/References are encouraged, but some explanations are required.]

p.s. This is the modified ellaborated version of a unfortunately closed question from Phys.SE.