Where can I find a comprehensive treatment of this important result at the level of a very advanced undergraduate/beginning graduate student? What works develop the relevant material in a cohesive and readable way? Assume only a familiarity with basic homological algebra and ring theory on the part of the reader in assessing this question, please. Thank you!
The place I learned it from is Chapter 19 of Eisenbud's Commutative Algebra. Most of the proofs in that section do not use material from previous chapters if I recall correctly. The route (which I think is what you are looking for) is to construct the Koszul complex of the residue field of a regular (graded) local ring and also prove the symmetry of the Tor functor, and then use these two facts to get finite global dimension which implies Hilbert's syzygy theorem.