In your second edit, you ask whether there exists an example of such a bundle over a lower-dimensional manifold.

**Four-dimensional example**

Let $M = (\mathbb{RP}^2\times\mathbb{RP}^2)\#(S^1\times S^3)$. Note that

$$H^1(M; \mathbb{Z}_2) \cong H^1(\mathbb{RP}^2\times\mathbb{RP}^2; \mathbb{Z}_2)\oplus H^1(S^1\times S^3;\mathbb{Z}_2).$$
Let $a$ and $b$ denote elements of $H^1(M; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ corresponding to generators of $H^1(\mathbb{RP}^2\times\mathbb{RP}^2; \mathbb{Z}_2)$, and let $c$ denote the element of $H^1(M; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ corresponding to the generator of $H^1(S^1\times S^3; \mathbb{Z}_2)$.

Consider the rank four vector bundle $E = L_a \oplus L_b \oplus L_c\oplus L_{a + b + c}$ where $L_x$ is the unique real line bundle over $M$ with $w_1(L_x) = x$; note that $L_{a+b+c} \cong L_a\otimes L_b\otimes L_c$. We have

\begin{align*}
w_1(E) =&\ w_1(L_a) + w_1(L_b) + w_1(L_c) + w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
=&\ a + b + c + (a + b + c) = 0\\
&\\
w_2(E) =&\ w_1(L_a)w_1(L_b) + w_1(L_a)w_1(L_c) + w_1(L_a)w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
&+ w_1(L_b)w_1(L_c) + w_1(L_b)w_1(L_{a + b + c}) + w_1(L_c)w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
=&\ ab + ac + a(a + b + c) + bc + b(a + b + c) + c(a + b + c)\\
=&\ ab + a^2 + b^2 \neq 0\\
&\\
w_3(E) =&\ w_1(L_a)w_1(L_b)w_1(L_c) + w_1(L_a)w_1(L_b)w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
&+ w_1(L_a)w_1(L_c)w_1(L_{a + b + c}) + w_1(L_b)w_1(L_c)w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
=&\ abc + ab(a + b + c) + ac(a + b + c) + bc(a + b + c)\\
=&\ a^2b + ab^2 \neq 0\\
&\\
w_4(E) =&\ w_1(L_a)w_1(L_b)w_1(L_c)w_1(L_{a + b + c})\\
=&\ abc(a + b + c) = 0.
\end{align*}

So $E$ is a rank four vector bundle over a four-manifold $M$ with $w(E) = 1 + w_2(E) + w_3(E)$.

In fact, we can do better. As $H^4(M; \mathbb{Z}) \cong \mathbb{Z}_2$, reduction mod $2$ defines an isomorphism $H^4(M; \mathbb{Z}) \to H^4(M; \mathbb{Z}_2)$. Under this isomorphism, $e(E)$ is mapped to $w_4(E) = 0$, so $e(E) = 0$ and hence $E \cong F\oplus\varepsilon^1$. Note that $F \to M$ is a rank three vector bundle with $w(F) = 1 + w_2(F) + w_3(F)$.

**Three-dimensional characterisation**

Let $X$ be a three-dimensional CW complex. Recall that there is a bijection between isomorphism classes of orientable rank three bundles on $X$ and homotopy classes of maps $X \to BSO(3)$. As $X$ is three-dimensional, we can instead map to $BSO(3)[3]$, the third stage of the Postnikov tower for $BSO(3)$. As $\pi_1(BSO(3)) = 0$, $\pi_2(BSO(3)) = \mathbb{Z}_2$, and $\pi_3(BSO(3)) = 0$, we see that $BSO(3)[3]$ is a $K(\mathbb{Z}_2, 2)$. Moreover, as the map $BSO(3) \to BSO(3)[3]$ induces an isomorphism on $\pi_1$ and $\pi_2$, the map $H^2(BSO(3)[3]; \mathbb{Z}_2) \to H^2(BSO(3); \mathbb{Z}_2)$ is also an isomorphism. It follows that there is a bijection between orientable rank three bundles on $X$ and $H^2(X; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ given by the second Stiefel-Whitney class of the bundle.

Now suppose that $X$ is a connected three-dimensional manifold. In order for $w_3(E) \in H^3(X; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ to be non-zero, we need $X$ to be closed. Furthermore, if $X$ is closed,

$$w_3(E) = \operatorname{Sq}^1(w_2(E)) = \nu_1(X)w_2(E) = w_1(X)w_2(E)$$

so $X$ must be non-orientable. By Poincaré duality, there is at least one $\alpha \in H^2(X; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ such that $w_1(X)\alpha \neq 0$. For each such $\alpha$, there is a unique $SO(3)$-bundle $E \to X$ with $w(E) = 1 + \alpha + w_1(X)\alpha$.

In conclusion, we have the following statement:

Let $X$ be a connected, closed three-manifold. There is a real rank three vector bundle $E \to X$ with $w(E) = 1 + w_2(E) + w_3(E)$ if and only if $X$ is non-orientable. Moreover, on any non-orientable $X$, for every choice of $\alpha \in H^2(X; \mathbb{Z}_2)$ satisfying $w_1(X)\alpha\neq 0$, there is a unique real rank three bundle $E$ with $w(E) = 1 + \alpha + w_1(X)\alpha$.