OK, I'll give it a shot. The bi-algebra structure on $D$ is something that I found very confusing too, so I will try to spell it out as best I understand. These ideas were explained to me by Pavel Safronov, and I found these notes by Gabriella Bohm be helpful https://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3806 (though they deal with a more general case than we need here). See also the original papers by Sweedler and Takeuchi from the `70's.

## The $D$-module set-up

Suppose $X$ is a smooth algebraic variety, and $D=D_X$. The situation we have is the following: the category $D-mod$ and the forgetful functor to $\mathcal O-mod$, are equipped with (symmetric) monoidal structures (the duality of $D$-modules will be discussed later).

There are many ways to understand why this should be the case, as some of the other answers indicate. For example, the category $D-mod$ can be understood as quasi-coherent sheaves on the de Rham space $X_{dR}$ (and the ring $D$ expresses the descent data on the pullback to quasi-coherent sheaves on $X$). Alternatively, if one thinks of $D$ as a deformation quantization of $T^\ast X$, then the monoidal structure arises from the fact that the cotangent bundle is a symplectic group(oid) acting (trivially) on $X$. One can think of $T^\ast X$ as being a commutative group object in the category of symplectic varieties and lagrangian correspondences (I find this last persepective helpful in unpacking the notion of bialgebroid).

However, I think what you are after is not *why* $D$-modules have this structure, but what structure on the ring $D$ endows $D-mod$ with these structures. The answer (as has already been mentioned) is that $D$ is a bialgebroid over $\mathcal O$. Let me try my best to unpack what that means below.

## The categorical structure

(You can ignore this bit if you don't like it).

Consider the following situation: we have monoidal categories $\mathcal C$ and $\mathcal D$ and a monoidal functor
$$F:\mathcal D \to \mathcal C$$
Suppose also that the functor $F$ is monadic, so that $\mathcal D$ can be expressed as modules for a monad $T$ acting on $\mathcal C$. The monoidal structures on $\mathcal D$, $\mathcal C$ and $F$ must then be reflected in the monad $T$. Such a structure on a monad (acting on a monoidal category $\mathcal C$) is called a bimonad. Rather than saying what this all this means in general, let's consider a special case.

## Bialgebroids (over a commutative base)

Suppose $R$ is a commutative ring, and let $\mathcal C = R-mod$. Then a (colimit preserving) monad acting on $R-mod$ is nothing more than a $R$-ring, i.e. a ring $B$ with a ring homomorphism $R\to B$ (note that $R$ need not be central in $B$). In the case we are interested in $B=D$ and $R=\mathcal O$.

Before giving an algebraic definition of a bialgebroid, we note that the point of all this is that a (left) bialgebroid structure on $B$ is exactly equivalent to data of a monoidal structure on $B-mod$ and on the forgetful functor to $R-mod$. Note that if $R$ is central in $B$, this is the usual Tannakian theory, and an $R$-bialgebr*oid* is just an $R$-bialgebr*a*.

So what is an $R$-bialgebroid? Well, we already know that $B$ is an $R$-ring, so there is a product:
$$
B_{\bullet} \otimes_{R} {}_\bullet B \to B
$$
where the dots indicate on which side $R$ is acting on $B$. As one might expect, there is also a coproduct, which tells you how $B$ should act on the tensor product $M \otimes_R N$ of two left $B$-modules, but one has to be careful about which monoidal category the coalgebra structure on $B$ lives in. If you unwind the definitions, you see that the coproduct is given by a map
$$
B \to {}_\bullet B \otimes_R {}_\bullet B
$$
Note that, unlike in the product map, $R$ is acting on the left on both factors. This is a little confusing at first, but perhaps not so surprising if you consider that in the category $B-mod$ we want to understand how to tensor two left $B$-modules.

Of course, there are some axioms. The one that I found hardest to digest involves something called the *Takeuchi product*. Let me try to motivate that a bit.

## Takeuchi Product

In the usual theory of bialgebras, there is an axiom which says that the coproduct is an algebra map. This doesn't make sense for bialgebroids as ${}_\bullet B\otimes_R {}_\bullet B$ is not an algebra under componentwise multiplication. The Takeuchi product is a certain subspace of this object, defined by:
$$
B {}_R \times B := \left\{ \sum b_i \otimes b_i' \in {}_\bullet B\otimes_R {}_\bullet B \mid \sum b_i r \otimes b_i' = b_i \otimes b_i'r \right\}
$$
Note that the the $r$'s in the condition are acting on the right, whereas the relative tensor product is using multiplication on the left. Note also that if $R$ is central in $B$, then the condition is vacuous. One can check that $B {}_R \times B$ is ring under compoentwise multiplication. One of the axioms of a bialgebroid is that the coproduct map factors through the Takeuchi product and is a ring homomorphism. (There is another interesting bialgebroid axiom, which is about the counit map, but for brevity, I won't discuss that).

The Takeuchi product (which in the $R$ commutative case appears to be due to Sweedler?) seemed somewhat mysterious to me until I saw that there is a ring isomorphism:
$$
B {}_R \times B \simeq End_{B^{op}\otimes B^{op}} (_\bullet B \otimes_R {}_\bullet B )
$$
Thus, the comultiplication map is nothing more than the structure of a left $B$, right $B\otimes B$ bimodule on ${}_\bullet B\otimes_R {}_\bullet B$. This fits well with the $D$-modules story: the coproduct on $\mathcal D$ is precisely the transfer bimpdule structure on $$ \mathcal D_{X\to X\times X} = {}_\bullet \mathcal D \otimes_{\mathcal O} {}_{\bullet} \mathcal D$$
(as it should be, as the transfer bimodule represents the tensor product functor).

## The D-module structure on Hom

Let me come back to this another time...