A *non-principal* [*probability*] *measure* on a set X is a function $\mu$ defined on all subsets of $X$, with values in $[0,1]$, which is finitely additive, satisfies $\mu(X)=1$, and vanishes on singletons.

Can one prove in ZF + DC that the existence of such a measure on $\bf N$ (or on $\omega$), the set of natural integers, implies that of a non-Lebesgue measurable subset of $\bf R$?

Comments: 1) Sierpinski proved this in 1938 in the special case that $\mu$ takes values in $\{0,1\}$ (*non-principal,* or *non-free ultrafilter*). It suffices to take $X=\{A\subset{\bf N}\mid\mu(A)=0\}\subset\{0,1\}^{\bf N}$, equipped with the standard Bernoulli measure $\lambda$ (so that $\{0,1\}^{\bf N},\lambda)\approx([0,1],{\rm Leb}$). If $X$ were $\lambda$-measurable, one would have $\mu(X)={1\over2}$ since $X^c=\{A^c\mid A\in X\}$. But $X$ is a queue event, thus by Kolmogorov, $\mu(X)=0$ or $1$, contradiction.

2) In the 1998 book by Howard and Rubin, *Consequences of the axiom of choice*, it is stated that the existence of a non principal measure on $\bf N$ implies that of a non-Lebesgue measurable set [Form 222 implies Form 93], and that it can be found in articles by Pincus in 1972 and by Foreman-Wehrung in 1991. However, I could not find this implication in these articles.

3) The most famous non-principal measures on countable sets are invariant means on amenable groups, starting with $\bf Z$ [*mean* is another name for a finitely additive probability measure defined on all subsets]. Question: does the existence of a non-principal measure on $\bf N$ (or $\bf Z$) imply (in ZF + DC) that of an invariant mean on $\bf Z$?