In the question Eigenvalues of a matrix with entries involving combinatorics No_way asked about eigenvectors of $n\times n$ matrix $M$ with entries \begin{eqnarray*} M_{ij}=(-1)^{i+j}F(n, l, i, j), \end{eqnarray*} where $F(n,l,i,j)$ is the cardinality of the set \begin{eqnarray*} \{(k_1, \cdots, k_n)\in\mathbb{Z}^{n}|0\leq k_r\leq l-1\text{ for }1\leq r\leq n\text{, }k_1+\cdots+k_n=lj-i\}. \end{eqnarray*} These eigenvalues are known to be $1, l, l^2, \cdots, l^{n-1}$.

Let's remove signs and consider the matrix $M$ with $M_{ij}=F(n, l, i, j)$. According to my numerical experiments eigenvectors do not depend on $l$ for $l\ge 2$ and they are polynomials.

Q1:Why do eigenvectors not depend on $l$?

For $l=2$ we have $M_{ij}=\binom n{2j-i},$ and first examples are (eigenvectors of $M$ are rows of $V$) $$n=2,\qquad M=\left( \begin{array}{cc} 2 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right),\qquad V=\left( \begin{array}{cc} 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right);$$ $$n=3,\qquad M=\left( \begin{array}{ccc} 3 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & 3 & 0 \\ 0 & 3 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right),\qquad V=\left( \begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 1 & 1 \\ -1 & 1 & 3 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right);$$

$$n=4,\qquad M=\left( \begin{array}{cccc} 4 & 4 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 6 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 4 & 4 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 6 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right),\qquad V=\left( \begin{array}{cccc} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ -1 & 0 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 & -1 & 2 & 11 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right);$$

$$n=5,\qquad M=\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} 5 & 10 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 10 & 5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 5 & 10 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 10 & 5 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 5 & 10 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right),\qquad V=\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ -3 & -1 & 1 & 3 & 5 \\ 11 & -1 & -1 & 11 & 35 \\ -3 & 1 & -1 & 3 & 25 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{array} \right).$$

Denote by $v_m=(v_m(1),\ldots,v_m(n))$ rows of $V$ ($0\le m\le n-1$). They defined up to multiplicative constant and $v_m(k)=\mu_m P_m(k)$ where $P_m(x)$ are some special polynomials of degree $m$. In particular for $m=0,1,2,3,4$ we have $$P_0(x)=1,\quad P_1(x)=2x-n,\quad P_2(x)=3x^2-3nx+\frac{n(3n-1)}{4},$$ $$P_3(x)=4x^3-6nx^2+n(3n-1)x-\frac{n^2(n-1)}{2},$$ $$P_4(x)=5x^4-10nx^3+\frac{5n(3n-1)}{2}x^2-\frac{5n^2(n-1)}{2}x+\frac{n(15n^3-30n^2+5n+2)}{48}.$$

Q2:What is the generating function for these polynomials?